Alternative Digit Sets for Nonadjacent Representations

  • James A. Muir
  • Douglas R. Stinson
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3006)


It is known that every positive integer n can be represented as a finite sum of the form n = sum(a i 2 i ), where a i in {0,1,-1} for all i, and no two consecutive a i ’s are non-zero. Such sums are called nonadjacent representations. Nonadjacent representations are useful in efficiently implementing elliptic curve arithmetic for cryptographic applications.

In this paper, we investigate if other digit sets of the form {0,1,x}, where x is an integer, provide each positive integer with a nonadjacent representation. If a digit set has this property we call it a nonadjacent digit set (NADS). We present an algorithm to determine if {0,1,x} is a NADS; and if it is, we present an algorithm to efficiently determine the nonadjacent representation of any positive integer. We also present some necessary and sufficient conditions for {0,1,x} to be a NADS. These conditions are used to exhibit infinite families of integers x such that {0,1,x} is a NADS, as well as infinite families of x such that {0,1,x} is not a NADS.


Positive Integer Elliptic Curve Negative Integer Directed Cycle Infinite Family 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • James A. Muir
    • 1
  • Douglas R. Stinson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Combinatorics and Optimization 
  2. 2.School of Computer ScienceUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

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