Universality of Minimal Symport/Antiport: Five Membranes Suffice
P systems with symport/antiport rules of a minimal size (only one object passes in any direction in a communication step) have been recently proved to be computationally universal. The result originally reported in  has been subsequently improved in  by showing that six membranes suffice. In  it has been also conjectured that at least one membrane can be saved. Here we prove that conjecture: P systems with five membranes and symport/antiport rules of a minimal size are computationally complete. The optimality of this result remains open.
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