A Membrane System for the Leukocyte Selective Recruitment

  • Giuditta Franco
  • Vincenzo Manca
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2933)


A formal description is developed for the phenomenon of leukocyte recruitment that plays a critical role in the immune response. Due to its complex nature and capability to rapidly adapt to the attack of infectious agents, the immune system may be considered a typical example of complex adaptive system [9].

Here the leukocyte selective recruitment, crucial in immunity, is modeled as a dynamical system of interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells, where a special kind of membrane structure turns out to be a very useful tool in the formal analysis of the recruitment process. In our membrane system, besides the traditional rules for communication and transformation of P systems [8], rules are allowed for the expression of receptors, for adhesion between membranes, and for the encapsulation of a membrane inside another membrane.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bernardini, F., Manca, V.: Dynamical Aspects of P Systems. BioSystems 70(2), 85–93 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bernardini, F., Manca, V.: P Systems with Boundary Rules. In: Păun, G., Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A., Zandron, C. (eds.) WMC 2002. LNCS, vol. 2597, pp. 107–118. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D’ambrosio, D., Albanesi, C., Lang, R., Girolomoni, G., Sinigaglia, F., Laudanna, C.: Quantitative Differences in Chemokine Receptor Engagement Generate Diversity in Integrin-Dependent Lymphocyte Adhesion. The Journal of Immunology, 2303–2312Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kitano, H.: Computational Systems Biology. Nature 420, 206–210 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kitano, H.: Systems Biology: A Brief Overview. Science 295, 1662–1664 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Paul, W.E.: Fundamental Immunology, 2nd edn. Raven Press Ltd., New York (1989)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Păun, A., Păun, G.: The Power of Communication: P Systems with Symport/Antiport. New Generation Computing 20(3), 295–306 (2002)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Păun, G.: Membrane Computing. An Introduction. Springer, Berlin (2002)MATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Segel, L.A., Cohen, I.R.: Design Principles for the Immune System and Other Distributed Autonomous Systems. In: Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Suzuki, Y., Fujiwara, Y., Tanaka, H., Takabayashi, J.: Artificial Life Applications of a Class of P Systems: Abstract Rewriting Systems on Multisets. In: Calude, C.S., Pun, G., Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A. (eds.) Multiset Processing. LNCS, vol. 2235, pp. 299–346. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuditta Franco
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Manca
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di InformaticaUniversità di VeronaItaly

Personalised recommendations