Multiculturalism in Taiwan and the Influence of Europe

  • Jens Damm


Taiwan is gradually developing and being perceived as a multicultural society, a phenomenon which has been emerging alongside the democratization and pluralization of the island since the 1980s. This process has been accompanied by frequent references to developments in Western countries such as Canada, Australia and occasionally the European Union, while indigenous developments or earlier understandings of the Republic of China as a multiethnic state have been carefully avoided. Today, the Taiwanese discourse on multiculturalism focuses mainly on the four ethnic groups mentioned in the official discourse: the Hoklo (fulao), the Hakka (kejia), the Mainlanders (waishengren) and the indigenous population, usually referred to as the Aborigines (yuanzhumin). Other formerly marginalized groups and minorities, ranging from women, to sexual minorities and to the groups of new migrants, including “foreign brides” from mainland China and Southeast Asia, have also increasingly been included in the discourse of multiculturalism. Various NGOs have set up to proclaim the idea of cultural diversity, which has also been the focus of new legislation and constitutional changes.


Indigenous People Sexual Minority Language Policy National Identity Democratic Progressive Party 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Cerroni-Long, E. Liza (1999) Towards a Constructive Pluralism: Multicultaralism, Education and the State: Anthropological Perspectives, UNESCO Documents and Publications, online, available HTTP: <> (accessed 15 July 2009).
  2. Chen, Xifan (Chen Hsi-fan) (2001) “‘Zhongguoren’ yu ‘Huaren’,” (“Chinese” and “ethnic Chinese”), Guojia zhengce luntan(National policy forum), 1:2, 22–25.Google Scholar
  3. Chou,Wan-yao(2006) “Between Heimat and Nation: Japanese Colonial Education and the Origins of ‘Taiwanese Consciousness’,” in Fitzgerald, John P. and Sechin Y.-S. Chien (Eds.),The Dignity ofNations: Equality, Competition and Honour in East Asian Nationalism, 115–139, 231–236.Google Scholar
  4. Chun, Allen (2000) “The Grand Illusion: The Long History of Multiculturalism in Taiwan in an Era of Invented Indigenization,” Conference Paper, Conference on Remapping Taiwan: Histories and Cultures in the Context of Globalization, University of California, Los Angeles, online, available HTTP: <> (accessed 10 October 2009).
  5. Chun, Allen (2007) “Ethnic Identity in the Politics of the Unreal,” Taiwan in Comparative Perspective, 1, 76–86.Google Scholar
  6. Corcuff, Stéphane (2002) Memories of the Future: National Identity Issues and the Search for a New Taiwan, Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  7. Corcuff, Stephane (2011a) “Liminality and Taiwan Tropism in a Postcolonial Context: Schemes of National Identification among Taiwan’s ‘Mainlanders’ on the Eve of Kuomintang’s Return to Power,” in: Ngo, Tak-Wing and Wang, Hong-zen (Eds.), Politics of Difference in Taiwan, London and New York: Routledge, 34–62.Google Scholar
  8. Corcuff, Stephane (2011b) “Taiwan’s Mainlanders under President Chen Shuibian: A Shift from the Political to the Cultural?,”in: Schubert, Gunter and Damm, Jens (Eds.), Taiwanese Identity in the Twenty-First Century – Domestic Regional and Global Perspectives, London and New York: Routledge, 113–132.Google Scholar
  9. Corcuff, Stéphane (Gao Kefu) (2004), Feng he ri nuan. Taiwan Waishengren yu guojia rentong de zhuanbian (Light Wind, warm sun. Taiwan’s Mainlanders and the national identity transition), Taipei: Yunchen wenhua.Google Scholar
  10. Damm, Jens (2011) “Discrimination and Backlash against Homosexual Groups,” in: Ngo, Tak-Wing and Wang, Hong-zen (Eds.), Politics of Difference in Taiwan, London and New York: Routledge, 152–180.Google Scholar
  11. Duara, Prasenjit (1993) “De-Constructing the Chinese Nation,” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 30, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gladney, Dru C. (1994) “Representing Nationality in China: Refiguring Majority/Minority Identities,” The Journal of Asian Studies, 53:1, 92–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gladney, Dru C. (2004) Dislocating China: Reflections on Muslims, Minorities, and Other Subaltern Subjects, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hall, Stuart (1993) “Cultural Identity and Diaspora,” in: Williams, Patrick and Chrisman, Laura (Eds.) Colonial Discourse & Postcolonial Theory: A Reader, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 392–403.Google Scholar
  15. Ho, Josephine (2007) “Sex Revolution and Sex Rights Movement in Taiwan,” in: Damm, Jens and Schubert, Gunter (Eds.) Taiwanese Identity from Domestic, Regional and Global Perspectives, (Chinese History and Society/Berliner Chinahefte 32/2007), Münster: LIT, 140–159.Google Scholar
  16. Ho, Ming-Sho (2005) “Taiwan’s State and Social Movements under the DPP Government, 2000–2004,” Journal of East Asian Studies, September-December, online, available HTTP: <> (accessed 10 October 2008).
  17. Hong, Jingqi (1999) Zhonghua Minguo wenhua jianshe weiyuanhui yu Faguo wenhuabu zhi jingfei yunyong tantao (Comparaision des politiques culturelles entre la France et la Republique de Chine a Taiwan: a travers l''etude des politiques de financement du ministere francais de la Culture et du conseil national des Affaires culturelles de la Republique de Chine a Ta), MA, Furen daxue, Taipei.Google Scholar
  18. Hsiau, A-Chin (1997) “Language Ideology in Taiwan: The KMT's Language Policy, the Tai-yu Language Movement, and Ethnic Politics,” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development,18:4,online,available HTTP: <>, (accessed 10 May 2007), 302–315.
  19. Huang, Zhihui (2010) “‘Zhimin tongzhi’ yu ‘qianzhanzhe guojia’ shuo zhi jiantao” (An analysis of “colonial rule” and “settler states”), in Taiwan jiaoshou xiehui (Taiwan Association of University Professors) (Eds.), Zhonghua minguo liuwang Taiwan 60 nian ji zhanhou Taiwan guoji chujing (The Republic of China’s sixty years of exile in Taiwan and Taiwan’s difficult postwar international situation), 161–194.Google Scholar
  20. Hwang, Jimmy (2003) “Tourism: Community Spirit,” in: Taiwan Review, 1 August. Online. Available HTTP: <>, (accessed 27 May 2011) .
  21. Hwang, Yih-jye (2006) “Historical and Political Knowledge in the Discursive Constitution of Taiwanese National Identity,” Perspectives, 7:3, 110–131.Google Scholar
  22. Hwang, Yih-jye (2007) Taiwanese National Identity as a ‘Discursive Entity’ (unpublished PhD), Aberystwyth: University of Wales.Google Scholar
  23. Jian, Ruirong (1998) “Yingguo de wenhua zhengce yu wenhua zichan baocun” (The cultural policy of Great Britain and the preservation of cultural heritage), in: Guoli chuantong yishu zhongxin choubeichu (National Center for Traditional Arts preparatory office) (Eds.), 87 nian chuantong yishu yantaohui lunwenji (Collected essays of the 1998 conference on traditional art), 665–676.Google Scholar
  24. Kastoryano, Riva (2003), “If European Identity Is the Question, Is Multiculturalism the Answer?”,CNRS Thema, Online, available HTTP: <> (accessed 25 March 2009).
  25. King, Winnie (2007) “From Exclusive to Adaptive National Identity: Taiwan’s Mainland Spouses’ Immigration Policy,” in: Damm, Jens and Schubert, Gunter (Eds.) Taiwanese Identity from Domestic, Regional and Global Perspectives (Chinese History and Society/Berliner Chinahefte 32/2007), Münster: LIT, 140–159.Google Scholar
  26. Kymlicka, Will (1995) Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights, Oxford, New York: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Kymlicka, Will (2003) Dangdai zhengzhi zhexiao daolun(Contemporary political philosophy), Taipei: Linking.Google Scholar
  28. Lee, Teng-hui (1999) “Understanding Taiwan: Bridging the Perception Gap,” Foreign Affairs, 78:6, 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee, Teng-hui (Li, Denghui) (1999) Jingying da Taiwan (Managing a great Taiwan), Taipei: Yuanli.Google Scholar
  30. Li, Kuang-chün (2002) “Mirrors and Masks: An Interpretative Study of Mainlander's Identity Dilemma,” in Corcuff, Stéphane (Eds.), Memories of the Future: National Identity Issues and the Search for a New Taiwan, 102–122.Google Scholar
  31. Liang, Yukang (1996) Wenhua rentong yu zhengzhi rentong - Chalisi ‧ Taile (Charles Taylor) chengren zhengzhi lun zhi fenxi lunwen (Cultural identity and political identity: an analysis of Charles Taylor’s politics of recognition), MA, National Sun Yat-sen University.Google Scholar
  32. Loa, Lok-Sin (2007) “Minister Urges Faster Review of Aboriginal Legislation,” Taipei Times, 4 September: 4.Google Scholar
  33. Loa, Lok-sin (2009a) “CIP Rejects Pingpu Status Claim,”Taipei Times, 2.Google Scholar
  34. Loa, Lok-sin (2009b) “Feature: Pingpu Aborigines Heat up Battle for Ethnic Identity,”Taipei Times, 3.Google Scholar
  35. Loa, Lok-sin. (2010, 23 December) “Aborigines Protest Township Losses,”Taipei Times, p. 3.Google Scholar
  36. Loa, Lok-sin. (2011, 2 January) “Aborigines Protest ROC Repression,”Taipei Times, p. 3.Google Scholar
  37. Lü, Jiande (2003) “Quanqiuhua, shehui gongminquan yu minzhu: yig chubu de sikao” (Globalization, Social Citizenship and Democracy: A Preliminary Consideration),Taiwan zhengzhi xuekan(Taiwan Political Science Review), 7:2, 189–238.Google Scholar
  38. Luo, Lunxin (2009) “Kejia wenhua yu yuyan wanglu ziyuan diaocha” (Investigating the resources of Hakka culture and language in World Wide-Web),Jiaoyu ziliao yu yanjiu (Bimonthly Journal of Educational Resources and Research), 91, 111–130.Google Scholar
  39. Marsh, Robert (2002) “National identity and Ethnicity in Taiwan: Some Trends in the 1990s,” in: Corcuff, Stéphane (Eds.), Memories of the Future: National Identity Issues and the Search for a New Taiwan, 1441–1159.Google Scholar
  40. Modood, Tariq (2007) Multiculturalism, Cambridge, Malden, MA: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  41. Neder, Christine (2003) “Blut und Boden (‘Blood and Soil’)? Ideological Tendencies in Taiwanese Literature and Its Reception,” in: Neder, Christine and Susanne-Schilling, Ines (Eds.) Transformation! Innovation? Perspectives on Taiwan Culture, Wiesbaden: Harrossowitz, 101–110.Google Scholar
  42. No author (2009, 5 December) “Chinese Travel Agents to Tour Aboriginal Villages,” Taipei Times, p. 2.Google Scholar
  43. No author (2010a, 7 December) “Councilor Calls for Return of Traditional Aboriginal Hunting,”Taipei Times, p. 2.Google Scholar
  44. No author (2010b, 12 December) “President Ma Pledges to Make Taiwan Global Hakka Research Center,”Focus Taiwan News Channel, retrieved from, (accessed 12 January 2010).
  45. Phillips, Steven E. (2003) Between Assimilation and Independence: the Taiwanese Encounter Nationalist China, 1945–1950, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Qi, Peiwen (1990) Faguo wenhua zhengce zhi yanjiu (Research on the cultural policy of France), MA, Danjiang daxue, Danshui.Google Scholar
  47. Rudolph, Michael (1998) The Quest for Difference Vs the Wish to Assimilate: Taiwan’s Aborigines and Their Struggle for Cultural Survival in Times of Multiculturalism, online, available HTTP: <> (accessed 25 March 2009).
  48. Rudolph, Michael (2006) “Nativism, Ethnic Revival, and the Reappearance of Indigenous Religions in the ROC: The Use of the Internet in the Construction of Taiwanese Identities,” in: Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the Internet, 2, 1 online, available HTTP:, (accessed 17 November 2010).
  49. Shi, Zhengfeng (2010) Xilayazu de shenfen yu zhengfu de chenren zhengce (Nonrecognition of the Siraya people and status of the plains indigenous peoples in Taiwan), in: Taiwan yuanzhuminzu yanjiu jikan (Taiwan Journal of Indigenous Studies), 3:1, 1–28.Google Scholar
  50. Shih, Chih-Yu (2003) “Voting for an Ancestor (Roundtable: Melissa J. Brown’s Is Taiwan Chinese? The Impact of Culture,Power, and Migration on Changing Identities),” in: Issues & Studies, 40:3/4, 488–496.Google Scholar
  51. Simon, Scott (2009) “Multiculturalism and Indigenism: Minority Rights in Canada and Taiwan,” Paper presented at the conference Multiculturalism in Taiwan, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, January 8–10, 2009.Google Scholar
  52. Smith, Anthony D. (1987) The Ethnic Origins of Nations, Oxford New York: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  53. Smith, Anthony D. (1995) Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era, Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  54. Smith, Anthony D. (2001) Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History, Cambridge; Malden, Mass: Polity.Google Scholar
  55. Stainton, Michael (2007) “Aboriginal Self-Government: Taiwan’s Uncompleted Agenda,” in Rubinstein, Murray A. (Eds.) Taiwan: A New History, expanded ed, Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 419–435.Google Scholar
  56. Taylor, Charles (1992) Multiculturalism and the Politics of Recognition, Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Tu, Cheng-sheng (2007) Taiwan’s Educational Reform and the Future of Taiwan, Presented at London School of Economics and Political Science, January 10, 2007, online,available HTTP: <>, accessed 26 May 2011.
  58. UNESCO (2007) Cultural Diversity, in:
  59. Vickers, Edward (2009) “Re-Writing Museums,” in Shih, Fang-Long; Thompson, Stuart and Tremlett, Paul (Eds.) Re-Writing Culture in Taiwan, London: Routledge, 86–101.Google Scholar
  60. Wang, Fu-chang(Wang Fuzhang) (1998) “Zuqun yishi, minzu zhuyi, yu zhengdang zhichi: yi jiu jiu ling niandai Taiwan de zuqun zhengzhi” (Ethnic conciousness, nationalism, and party support: Taiwan ethnic politics in the 1990s), in: Taiwan shehuixue jikan (Taiwan: A Radical Quarterly in Social Studies), 2, 1–45.Google Scholar
  61. Wang, Fu-chang (Wang Fuzhang) (2002) “Zuqun jiechu jihui? Haishi zuqun jingzheng? Bensheng minnanren zuqun yishi neihan yu diqu chayi moshi zhi jieshi” (Opportunities for ethic contacts? Or ethnic competition? Explaining the ethnic group consciousness of the local Minnan and differences in regional patterns), in: Taiwan shehuixue (Taiwanese Sociology), 4, 11–78.Google Scholar
  62. Wang, Fu-chang (Wang Fuzhang) (2003) Dangdai Taiwan shehui de zujun xiangxiang (The ethnic imagination in Taiwan’s current society), Taipei: Xuejun.Google Scholar
  63. Wang, Fu-chang (Wang Fuzhang) (2005) “You ‘Zhongguo shengji’ dao ‘Taiwan zuqun’: hukou pucha jibie leishu zhuanbian zhi fenxi” (From Chinese original domicile to Taiwanese ethnicity: an analysis of census category transformation in Taiwan), in: Taiwan shehuixue (Taiwanese Sociology), 9, 59–117.Google Scholar
  64. Wang, Li-jung (2003) Towards Multiculturalism? Identity, Difference and Citizenship in Cultural Policy in Taiwan (1949–2002). PhD, University of Warwick, Warwick.Google Scholar
  65. Wang, Li-jung (2005) “Diaspora, Identity and Cultural Citizenship: the Hakkas in ‘Multicultural Taiwan’,” Paper presented at the Transnational Chinese, Cultural Migrations, Taipei,online,available HTTP: <>, accessed 26 May 2011.
  66. Wang, Li-jung (2007) “Diaspora, Identity and Cultural Citizenship: The Hakkas in ‘Multicultural Taiwan’,” in: Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30:5, 875–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wang, Yaxuan (Ya-Hsuan Wang) (2008) “Jinru qingjing yu lishi: Taiwan yuanzhumin jiaoshi de duoyuan wenhua suyang ji qi shijian” (Into Situation and History: Aboriginal teachers' articulation and practice of multicultural literacy), in: Taidong daxue jiaoyu xuebao (NNTU Education Research Journal), 19:1, 33–68.Google Scholar
  68. Wei, Jennifer M. (2008) Language Choice and Identity Politics in Taiwan, Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  69. Willis, David Blake and Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen (2007) Transcultural Japan: At the Borderlands of Race, Gender and Identity, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Xu, Jinhui (Chin-Hui Hsu) (2008) Taiwan kejia zuqun ‘yuyanquan’ baozhang zhi yanjiu - yi guojia yuyuan fazhanfa cao’an weili (Preservation of Taiwan Hakka “Linguistic Rights”: A research using the National Language Development Bill), MA, National Central University, Zhongli.Google Scholar
  71. Xu, Qian (1999) 1999 Ouzhou wenhua yu Ouzhou lianmeng wenhua zhengce (European culture vs. cultural policy of the European Union), Taipei: Rongxue.Google Scholar
  72. Yang, Guoxin (1993) Taiwan Kejia (The Hakka in Taiwan), Taipei: Zheng gang zixun wenhua.Google Scholar
  73. Yang, Yiting (Yi-ting Yang) (2008) “Cong duyouan wenhua jiaoyu lun Taiwan bentu yuyan kecheng gaige zhi tiaozhan” (The challenges of indigenous language curriculum reform in Taiwan: A multicultural education perspective), Jiaoyu xuezhi (Journal of Education), 20, 25–58.Google Scholar
  74. Zhang, Xingjie (Hsing-chieh Chang) (2009) Kejia dianshitai goutong moshi zhi yanjiu: yi Habomasi gonggong goutong de guandian (A study on the communication mode of Hakka TV - from the viewpoint of the public communication by Habermas),MA, National Central University, Zhongli.Google Scholar
  75. Zheng, Yongwei (1988) “Cong nongjing xuezhe dao yiguo zongtong - Li Denghui xiansheng de cong zhengzhi licheng” (From a scholar of agriculture to the President of a country - the political biography of Lee Teng-hui), Haihua zazhi (Overseas-Chinese Magazine), 37, 54–59.Google Scholar
  76. Zhong, Fengjiao (Feng-chiao Chung) (2009) “Youzou yu dongnanya wenhua daxuesheng duoyuan wenhuaguan de quanshi yu gaibian” (Cultures - analyzing the interpretation and transformation of college students’ multicultural viewpoints), Jiaoyu yu shehui yanjiu (Formosan Education and Society), 18, 33–70.Google Scholar
  77. Zhuang, Yingru (1998) “Fuli guojia de zhengfu jiaose - Yingguo jiangyan de qishi”(The role of the state in a welfare state - the British revelation), Laogong yanjiu jikan (Journal of Labour Research), 131, 1–26.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jens Damm

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations