Adjunctive Therapies for Temporomandibular Disorders

  • César Fernández-de-las-PeñasEmail author
  • Kimberly Bensen


Proper management of patients with temporomandibular pain disorders (TMD) needs a multidisciplinary approach including several professionals such as medical doctors, dentists, physical therapists, osteopaths, chiropractors, acupuncturists, orthodontists, surgeons, and psychologists [1]. Each professional will conduct an exhaustive clinical examination and will plan a multimodal program for these patients. In fact, treatment should be personalized based on the patient’s experience and including different therapeutic strategies such as passive and active techniques, active listening, empathy, and management of psychosocial issues, i.e., depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing, always based on clinical findings during the history and examination. For instance, dentists could recommend hard stabilization appliances [2] or splint therapy [3] for reducing pain in patients with TMD, whereas physical therapists can apply manual therapies or exercises for the same objective. Clinical and scientific evidence suggest that an interdisciplinary work between dentistry and physical therapy increases the effects of each isolated intervention for patients with TMD [4]. The current chapter summarizes different adjunctive therapies including physical therapy and chiropractic therapy for TMD.


  1. 1.
    Romero-Reyes M, Uyanik JM. Orofacial pain management: current perspectives. J Pain Res. 2014;7:99–115.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fricton J, Look JO, Wright E, Alencar FG Jr, Chen H, Lang M, Ouyang W, Velly AM. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating intraoral orthopedic appliances for temporomandibular disorders. J Orofac Pain. 2010;24:237–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ebrahim S, Montoya L, Busse JW, Carrasco-Labra A, Guyatt GH, Medically Unexplained Syndromes Research Group. The effectiveness of splint therapy in patients with temporo-mandibular disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Dent Assoc. 2012;143:847–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    de Toledo EG Jr, Silva DP, de Toledo JA, Salgado IO. The interrelationship between dentistry and physiotherapy in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13:579–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pfau DB, Rolke R, Treede RD, Daublaender M. Somatosensory profiles in subgroups of patients with myogenic temporomandibular disorders and fibromyalgia syndrome. Pain. 2009;147:72–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jull G, Sterling M, Kenardy J, Beller E. Does the presence of sensory hypersensitivity influence outcomes of physical rehabilitation for chronic whiplash? A preliminary RCT. Pain. 2007;129:28–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nijs J, Van Houdenhove B, Oostendorp RA. Recognition of central sensitization in patients with musculoskeletal pain: application of pain neurophysiology in manual therapy practice. Man Ther. 2010;15:135–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nijs J, Van Houdenhove B. From acute musculoskeletal pain to chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia: application of pain neurophysiology in manual therapy practice. Man Ther. 2009;14:3–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Galán del Río F, Fernández Carnero J, Pesquera J, Arendt-Nielsen L, Svensson P. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain sensitivity in myofascial temporomandibular disorder: evidence of impairment in central nociceptive processing. J Pain. 2009;10:1170–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rashid A, Matthews NS, Cowgill H. Physiotherapy in the management of disorders of the temporomandibular joint; perceived effectiveness and access to services: a national United Kingdom survey. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;51:52–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    van der Windt DA, van der Heijden GJ, van den Berg SG, ter Riet G, de Winter AF, Bouter LM. Ultrasound therapy for musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review. Pain. 1999;81:257–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McNeely ML, Armijo Olivo S, Magee DJ. A systematic review of the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for temporomandibular disorders. Phys Ther. 2006;86:710–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Medlicott MS, Harris SR. A systematic review of the effectiveness of exercise, manual therapy, electrotherapy, relaxation training, and biofeedback in the management of temporomandibular disorder. Phys Ther. 2006;86:955–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    List T, Axelsson S. Management of TMD: evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. J Oral Rehabil. 2010;37:430–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brantingham JW, Cassa TK, Bonnefin D, et al. Manipulative and multimodal therapy for upper extremity and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2013;36:143–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Calixtre LB, Moreira RF, Franchini GH, Alburquerque-Sendín F, Oliveira AB. Manual therapy for the management of pain and limited range of motion in subjects with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. J Oral Rehabil. 2015;42:847–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Armijo-Olivo S, Pitance L, Singh V, Neto F, Thie N, Michelotti A. Effectiveness of manual therapy and therapeutic exercise for temporomandibular disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Phys Ther. 2016;96:9–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martins W, Blasczyk JC, Aparecida Furlan de Oliveira M, et al. Efficacy of musculoskeletal manual approach in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorder: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Man Ther. 2016;21:10–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shukla D, Muthusekhar MR. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2016;7:62–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chang WD, Lee CL, Lin HY, Hsu YC, Wang CJ, Lai PT. A meta-analysis of clinical effects of low-level laser therapy on temporomandibular joint pain. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014;26:1297–300.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). Manipulation education manual for physical therapist professional degree programs manipulation. Accessed 1 April 2017.
  22. 22.
    Bialosky JE, Bishop MD, Price DD, Robinson ME, George SZ. The mechanisms of manual therapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain: a comprehensive model. Man Ther. 2009;14:531–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sault JD, Emerson Kavchak AJ, Tow N, Courtney CA. Regional effects of orthopedic manual physical therapy in the successful management of chronic jaw pain. Cranio. 2016;34:124–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    La-Touche R, Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Fernández-Carnero J, Escalante K, Angulo-Díaz-Parreño S, Paris-Alemany A, Cleland JA. The effects of manual therapy and exercise directed at the cervical spine on pain and pressure pain sensitivity in patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Rehabil. 2009;36:644–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Packer AC, Pires PF, Dibai-Filho AV, Rodrigues-Bigaton D. Effects of upper thoracic manipulation on pressure pain sensitivity in women with temporomandibular disorder: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2014;93:160–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jayaseelan DJ, Tow NS. Cervicothoracic junction thrust manipulation in the multimodal management of a patient with temporomandibular disorder. J Man Manip Ther. 2016;24:90–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tuncer AB, Ergun N, Tuncer AH, Karahan S. Effectiveness of manual therapy and home physical therapy in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a randomized controlled trial. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2013;17:302–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Calixtre LB, Grüninger BL, Haik MN, Alburquerque-Sendín F, Oliveira AB. Effects of cervical mobilization and exercise on pain, movement and function in subjects with temporomandibular disorders: a single group pre-post test. J Appl Oral Sci. 2016;24:188–97.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grondin F, Hall T. Changes in cervical movement impairment and pain following orofacial treatment in patients with chronic arthralgic temporomandibular disorder with pain: a prospective case series. Physiother Theory Pract. 2017;33:52–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Craane B, Dijkstra PU, Stappaerts K, De Laat A. Randomized controlled trial on physical therapy for TMJ closed lock. J Dent Res. 2012;91:364–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sharma NK, Ryals JM, Gajewski BJ, Wright DE. Aerobic exercise alters analgesia and neurotrophin-3 synthesis in an animal model of chronic widespread pain. Phys Ther. 2010;90:714–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mohn C, Vassend O, Knardahl S. Experimental pain sensitivity in women with temporomandibular disorders and pain-free controls: the relationship to orofacial muscular contraction and cardiovascular responses. Clin J Pain. 2008;24:343–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kietrys DM, Palombaro KM, Mannheimer JS. Dry needling for management of pain in the upper quarter and craniofacial region. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2014;18:437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    APTA. Description of dry needling in clinical practice: an educational resource paper. Alexandria: APTA Public Policy, Practice, and Professional Affairs Unit; 2013.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Galan-del-Rio F, Alonso-Blanco C, Jimenez-Garcia R, Arendt-Nielsen L, Svensson P. Referred pain from muscle trigger points in the masticatory and neck-shoulder musculature in women with temporomandibular disorders. J Pain. 2010;11:1295–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kietrys DM, Palombaro KM, Azzaretto E, Hubler R, Schaller B, Schlussel JM, Tucker M. Effectiveness of dry needling for upper-quarter myofascial pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43:620–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Boyles R, Fowler R, Ramsey D, Burrows E. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for multiple body regions: a systematic review. J Man Manip Ther. 2015;23:276–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fernández-Carnero J, La Touche R, Ortega-Santiago R, Galan-del-Rio F, Pesquera J, Ge HY, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C. Short-term effects of dry needling of active myofascial trigger points in the masseter muscle in patients with temporomandibular disorders. J Orofac Pain. 2010;24:106–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dıraçoğlu D, Vural M, Karan A, Aksoy C. Effectiveness of dry needling for the treatment of temporomandibular myofascial pain: a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled study. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2012;25:285–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Itoh K, Asai S, Ohyabu H, Imai K, Kitakoji H. Effects of trigger point acupuncture treatment on temporomandibular disorders: a preliminary randomized clinical trial. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2012;5:57–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Blasco-Bonora PM, Martín-Pintado-Zugasti A. Effects of myofascial trigger point dry needling in patients with sleep bruxism and temporomandibular disorders: a prospective case series. Acupunct Med. 2017;35:69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rocha C, Sanchez T. Efficacy of myofascial trigger point deactivation for tinnitus control. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;78:21–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gonzalez-Perez LM, Infante-Cossio P, Granados-Nunez M, Urresti-Lopez FJ, Lopez-Martos R, Ruiz-Canela-Mendez P. Deep dry needling of trigger points located in the lateral pterygoid muscle: efficacy and safety of treatment for management of myofascial pain and temporomandibular dysfunction. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015;20:326–33.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gonzalez-Perez LM, Infante-Cossio P, Granados-Nuñez M, Urresti-Lopez FJ. Treatment of temporomandibular myofascial pain with deep dry needling. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012;17:781–5.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Venancio Rde A, Alencar FG Jr, Zamperini C. Botulinum toxin, lidocaine, and dry-needling injections in patients with myofascial pain and headaches. Cranio. 2009;27:46–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Venâncio Rde A, Alencar FG, Zamperini C. Different substances and dry-needling injections in patients with myofascial pain and headaches. Cranio. 2008;26:96–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sabatke S, Scola RH, Paiva ES, Kowacs PA. Injection of trigger points in the temporal muscles of patients with miofascial syndrome. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2015;73:861–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ong J, Claydon LS. The effect of dry needling for myofascial trigger points in the neck and shoulders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2014;18:390–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    González-Iglesias J, Cleland JA, Neto F, Hall T, Fernández-de-las-Peñas C. Mobilization with movement, thoracic spine manipulation, and dry needling for the management of temporomandibular disorder: a prospective case series. Physiother Theory Pract. 2013;29:586–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Barretto SR, de Melo GC, dos Santos JC, et al. Evaluation of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of low-level laser therapy on temporomandibular joint inflammation in rodents. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2013;129:135–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Soriano F, Campana V, Moya M, et al. Photobiomodulation of pain and inflammation in microcrystalline arthropathies: experimental and clinical results. Photomed Laser Surg. 2006;24:140–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Núñez SC, Garcez AS, Suzuki SS, Ribeiro MS. Management of mouth opening in patients with temporomandibular disorders through low-level laser therapy and transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation. Photomed Laser Surg. 2006;24:45–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sayed N, Murugavel C, Gnanam A. Management of temporomandibular disorders with low level laser therapy. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2014;13:444–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Magri LV, Carvalho VA, Rodrigues FC, Bataglion C, Leite-Panissi CR. Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy on pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, and SF-MPQ indexes of women with myofascial pain. Lasers Med Sci. 2017;32:419–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Maia ML, Bonjardim LR, Quintans Jde S, Ribeiro MA, Maia LG, Conti PC. Effect of low-level laser therapy on pain levels in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review. J Appl Oral Sci. 2012;20:594–602.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Machado BC, Mazzetto MO, Da Silva MA, de Felício CM. Effects of oral motor exercises and laser therapy on chronic temporomandibular disorders: a randomized study with follow-up. Lasers Med Sci. 2016;31:945–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ucar M, Sarp Ü, Koca İ, Eroğlu S, Yetisgin A, Tutoglu A, Boyacı A. Effectiveness of a home exercise program in combination with ultrasound therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014;26:1847–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Awan K, Patil S. The role of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the management of temporomandibular joint disorder. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2015;16:984–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shanavas M, Chatra L, Shenai P, Rao PK, Jagathish V, Kumar SP, Naduvakkattu B. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy: an adjuvant pain controlling modality in TMD patients: a clinical study. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2014;11:676–9.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rajpurohit B, Khatri SM, Metgud D, Bagewadi A. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation in bruxism associated with masticatory muscle pain: a comparative study. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21:104–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rodrigues D, Siriani AO, Bérzin F. Effect of conventional TENS on pain and electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles in TMD patients. Braz Oral Res. 2004;18:290–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Louw A, Zimney K, Puentedura E, Diener I. The efficacy of pain neuroscience education on musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review of the literature. Physiother Theory Pract. 2016;32:332–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kalamir A, Bonello R, Graham P, Vitiello AL, Pollard H. Intraoral myofascial therapy for chronic myogenous temporomandibular disorder: a randomized clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2012;35:26–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64. 2017.
  65. 65.
    Meeker WC, Haldeman S. Chiropractic: a profession at the crossroads of mainstream and alternative medicine. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:216–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Weeks J, Goldstein M. Meeting the nation’s primary care needs: current and prospective roles of doctors of chiropractic and naturopathic medicine, practitioners of acupuncture and oriental medicine, and direct-entry midwives. 2013.
  67. 67.
    American Chiropractic Association website. What is chiropractic. 2017.
  68. 68.
    Ahlberg J, Lobbezoo F, Ahlberg K, Manfredini D, Hublin C, Sinisalo J, Könönen M, Savolainen A. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013;18(1):e7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vernon HT, Dhami MS, Howley TP, Annett R. Spinal manipulation and beta-endorphin: a controlled study of the effect of a spinal manipulation on plasma beta-endorphin levels in normal males. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1986;9(2):115–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Roy RA, Boucher JP, Comtois AS. Inflammatory response following a short-term course of chiropractic treatment in subjects with and without chronic low back pain. J Chiropr Med. 2010;9(3):107–14. Scholar
  71. 71.
    Palmer College of Chiropractic website. Benefits of chiropractic. 2018.
  72. 72.
    State of California Board of Chiropractic Examiners.
  73. 73.
    Lefebvre R, Peterson D, Haas M. Evidence-based practice and chiropractic care. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2012;18(1):75–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Schultz LW. TMJ subluxation is fairly frequent. JAMA. 1937;109(13):1032–5. Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sharma NK, Singh AK, Pandey A, Verma V, Singh S. Temporomandibular joint dislocation. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2015;6(1):16–20. Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schiffman E, Ohrbach R, Truelove E, Look J, Anderson G, Goulet JP, List T, Svensson P, Gonzalez Y, Lobbezoo F, Michelotti A, Brooks SL, Ceusters W, Drangsholt M, Ettlin D, Gaul C, Goldberg LJ, Haythornthwaite JA, Hollender L, Jensen R, John MT, De Laat A, de Leeuw R, Maixner W, van der Meulen M, Murray GM, Nixdorf DR, Palla S, Petersson A, Pionchon P, Smith B, Visscher CM, Zakrzewska J, Dworkin SF. Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) for clinical and research applications: recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network* and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group†. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2014;28(1):6–27.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pavia S, Fischer R, Roy R. Chiropractic treatment of temporomandibular dysfunction: a retrospective case series. J Chiropr Med. 2015;14(4):279–84. Scholar
  78. 78.
    Devocht JW, Long CR, Zeitler DL, Schaeffer W. Chiropractic treatment of temporomandibular disorders using the activator adjusting instrument: a prospective case series. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2003;26(7):421–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Seaman D. Subluxation: causes and effects. Dynamic Chiropractic. 1996;35(6).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Simons DG, Travell JG, Simons LS, et al. Travell and Simons’ myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual, vol. 1. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1998. p. 5–44, 103–164Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Okeson JP. Temoporomandibular disorder and occlusion. 5ed. ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2003.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Saghafi D, Curl DD. Chiropractic manipulation of anteriorly displaced temporomandibular disc with adhesion. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1995;18(2):98–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Walczyńska-Dragon K, Baron S. The biomechanical and functional relationship between temporomandibular dysfunction and cervical spine pain. Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2011;13(4):93–8. (with distinct patterns of cervical spine and masticatory functions)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ballenberger N, von Piekartz H, Danzeisen M, Hall T. Patterns of cervical and masticatory impairment in subgroups of people with temporomandibular disorders-an explorative approach based on factor analysis. Cranio. 2017:1–11.
  85. 85.
    Brantingham JW, Cassa TK, Bonnefin D, Pribicevic M, Robb A, Pollard H, Tong V, Korporaal C. Manipulative and multimodal therapy for upper extremity and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2013;36(3):143–201. Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wright E. Manual of temporomandibular disorders. 3rd ed. Hoboken: Wiley; 2014. p. 10, 42.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    De Laat A, Meuleman H, Stevens A, Verbeke G. Correlation between cervical spine and temporomandibular disorders. Clin Oral Investig. 1998;2(2):54–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cervical spine, TMJ, occlusion and whole body. BioMed Res Int. 2014;2014:582414.
  89. 89.
    von Piekartz H, Hall T. Orofacial manual therapy improves cervical movement impairment associated with headache and features of temporomandibular dysfunction: a randomized controlled trial. Man Ther. 2013;18(4):345–50. Scholar
  90. 90.
    von Piekartz H, Hall T. Osnabrück: University of Applied Science, Department of Rehabilitation. Man Ther 2013;18(4):345–50.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Reggars JW. The relationship between primary temporomandibular joint disorders and cervical spine dysfunction. A summary and review. COMSIG Rev. 1994;3(2):35–9. (cervical spine and temporomandibular disorders. De Laat A, Meuleman H, Stevens A, Verbeke G)PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pressman BD, Shellock FG, et al. MR imaging of temporomandibular joint abnormalities associated wtih cervical hyperextension/hyperflexion (whiplash) injuries. J Magn Imag. 1992;2:569–74.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Haagman-Henrickson B, List T, Westegran H, et al. Temporomandibular disorder pain after whiplash trauma: a systematic review. J Orofac Pain. 2013;27(3):217–26.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lee WY, Okeson JP, Lindroth J. The relationship between forward head posture and temporomandibular disorders. J Orofac Pain. 1995;9(2):161–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Chinappi AS Jr, Getzoff H. The dental-chiropractic co-treatment of structural disorders of the jaw and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1995;18(7):476–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Blum CL. Chiropractic and dentistry in the 21st century. Cranio. 2004;22:1–3. Scholar
  97. 97.
    Calixtre LB, Grüninger BL, Haik MN, Alburquerque-Sendín F, Oliveira AB. Effects of cervical mobilization and exercise on pain, movement and function in subjects with temporomandibular disorders: a single group pre-post test. J Appl Oral Sci. 2016;24(3):188–97. Scholar
  98. 98.
    Alcantara J, Plaugher G, Klemp DD, Salem C. Chiropractic care of a patient with temporomandibular disorder and atlas subluxation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2002;25(1):63–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Okeson JP. Management of temporomandibular disorders and occlusion. 5th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2003.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ciancaglini R, Colombo-Bolla G, Gherlone EF, Radaelli G. Orientation of craniofacial planes and temporomandibular disorder in young adults with normal occlusion. J Oral Rehabil. 2003;30(9):878–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    D’Attilio M, Epifania E, Ciuffolo F, Salini V, Filippi MR, Dolci M, Festa F, Tecco S. The hypothesis of this study is that cervical lordosis angle (CVT/EVT angle) alteration on cephalometrics could be correlated to the presence of TMD. Cranio. 2004;22(1):27–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    La Touche R, París-Alemany A, von Piekartz H, Mannheimer JS, Fernández-Carnero J, Rocabado M. The influence of cranio-cervical posture on maximal mouth opening and pressure pain threshold in patients with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders. Clin J Pain. 2011;27(1):48–55. Scholar
  103. 103.
    Janda V. The assessment and treatment of muscle imbalance. J Altern Med Res. 2009;1(3):221–32.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Brantingham JW, Cassa TK, Bonnefin D, Pribicevic M, Robb A, Pollard H, Tong V, Korporaal C. Manipulative and multimodal therapy for upper extremity and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2013;36(3):143–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cesar GM, Tosato Jde P, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA. Correlation between occlusion and cervical posture in patients with bruxism. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2006;27(8):463–6; quiz 467–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jiménez-Silva A, Peña-Durán C, Tobar-Reyes J, Frugone-Zambra R. Sleep and awake bruxism in adults and its relationship with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review from 2003 to 2014. Acta Odontol Scand. 2017;75(1):36–58. Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yap AU, Chua AP. Sleep bruxism: current knowledge and contemporary management. J Conserv Dent. 2016;19(5):383–9. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • César Fernández-de-las-Peñas
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Kimberly Bensen
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Physical Medicine and RehabilitationUniversidad Rey Juan Carlos, AlcorcónMadridSpain
  2. 2.Esthesiology LaboratoryUniversidad Rey Juan Carlos, AlcorcónMadridSpain
  3. 3.Centre for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Laboratory for Musculoskeletal Pain and Motor ControlAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  4. 4.TMJ TherapySan JoseUSA

Personalised recommendations