Self-Efficacy to Teach Coding in K-12 Education

  • Zafer Kadirhan
  • Abdülmenaf Gül
  • Ali Battal


There has been a growing interest to integrate “coding education” into K-12 curriculum in recent years. Teachers play a major role in this integration process, and in order for it to be successful, they should have strong sense of efficacy. Hence, the primary purpose of this chapter was to examine the self-efficacy skills that teachers should possess for effective coding education. In addition, teachers’ opinions about the benefits and potential barriers of coding education were investigated. Convergent parallel mixed-method design was employed to address research questions. Participants of the study consisted of two independent groups of samples with 15 and 272 participants, respectively. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently through a series of semi-structured interviews and the application of an online survey form. Results revealed six main self-efficacy skills themes: content knowledge, personal characteristics, motivating students, pedagogical knowledge, classroom management, and material development. Furthermore, findings suggested that the most significant challenges experienced during coding education were infrastructure-related problems, lack of resources, and inadequate teacher skills. The present findings have important implications for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to deliver effective and efficient coding education.


Coding education Teacher self-efficacy Computational thinking Challenges of coding education 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zafer Kadirhan
    • 1
  • Abdülmenaf Gül
    • 2
  • Ali Battal
    • 1
  1. 1.Middle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Hakkari UniversityHakkariTurkey

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