Measurement Strategies

  • Otwin BreitensteinEmail author
  • Wilhelm Warta
  • Martin C. Schubert
Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics book series (MICROELECTR., volume 10)


In the following sections some practical aspects of using lock-in thermography in the functional diagnostics of electronic components will be discussed and illustrated by measurement examples of a typical, thermally thin sample (solar cell) and a thermally thick one (integrated circuit). All these discussions are based on the theoretical findings presented in Chap.  4. Section 5.1 discusses the question which of the images available from a lock-in thermography experiment (\(0^\circ \) image, \(-90^\circ \) image, amplitude image, phase image, or \(0^\circ {/}{-}90^\circ \) image) is most appropriate to display certain details of different heat source distributions. In Sect. 5.2, the influence of the lock-in frequency on the obtained signal amplitude and lateral resolution of the thermograms will be discussed and demonstrated for different heat source geometries. In Sect. 5.3, the influence of a spatially varying IR emissivity will be discussed (emissivity contrast), and different ways to overcome this influence will be introduced and demonstrated. Finally, in Sect. 5.4 a simple technique will be introduced to distinguish Joule type heating from Peltier effects in lock-in thermography experiments on resistive samples.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otwin Breitenstein
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wilhelm Warta
    • 2
  • Martin C. Schubert
    • 2
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute of Microstructure PhysicsHalleGermany
  2. 2.Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy SystemsFreiburgGermany

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