Advertisement

Chemotherapy

  • Karina Gritsenko
  • Michael Lubrano
Chapter

Abstract

Chemotherapeutic agents, while essential for the management of many cancers, come with a myriad of side effects. This chapter concerns itself with the processes by which antineoplastic agents induce pain. These mechanisms include disruption of cells with a high mitotic index resulting in both direct and indirect cellular damage and/or cell death. Therapeutic classes such as the taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and platinum agents are historically most culpable for patient neuropathies. Additionally, common toxicities include mucositis, arthralgias, hand-foot syndrome, and infusion-related discomfort. Practitioners should plan for these painful side effects and mitigate the risks of chemotherapeutic agents accordingly.

Keywords

Chemotherapy Pain Taxanes Vinca alkaloids Platinum analogs Neuropathy Mucositis 

References

  1. 1.
    Cooper G. The cell: a molecular approach. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brunton LL, et al. Goodman & Gilman’s pharmacologic basis of therapeutics. 12th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Companies; 2011.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Katsung BG, Masters SB, Trevor AJ. Basic and clinical pharmacology. 11th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Medical; 2009.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. NCCN.org
  5. 5.
    Stoelting RK, Hillier SC. Pharmacology and physiology in anesthetic practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006. p. 551–68.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Floyd J, Mirza I, Sachs B, Perry MC. Hepatotoxicity of chemotherapy. Semin Oncol. 2006;33(1):50–67.  https://doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2005.11.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Malik SW, Myers JL, DeRemee RA, Specks U. Lung toxicity associated with cyclophosphamide use. Two distinct patterns. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154(6 Pt 1):1851–6.  https://doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm.154.6.8970380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bamat M, Tremmel R, O’Neil J. Uridine triacetate: an investigational orally administered, life-saving antidote for 5FU oversode. Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncologists, Chicago. 2010.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    McEvilly M, Popelas C, Tremmel B. Use of uridine triacetate for the management of fluorouracil overdose. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2011;68(19):1806–9.  https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp100434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Polyzos A, Tsavaris N, Gogas H, Souglakos J, Vambakas L, Vardakas N, et al. Clinical features of hypersensitivity reactions to oxaliplatin: a 10-year experience. Oncology. 2009;76(1):36–41.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000178163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Loprinzi CL, Qin R, Dakhil SR, et al. Phase III randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled, double-blind study of intravenous calcium/magnesium (CaMg) to prevent Oxaliplatin-induced sensory neurotoxicity (sNT), N08CB: an alliance for clinical trials in oncology study. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:3501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sleijfer S. Bleomycin-induced pneumonitis. Chest. 2001;120(2):617–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hay JG, Haslam PL, Dewar A, et al. Development of acute lung injury after the combination of intravenous bleomycin and exposure to hyperoxia in rats. Thorax. 1987;42:374–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sonis ST, Elting LS, Keefe D, Peterson DE, Schubert M, Hauer-Jensen M, Bekele BN, Raber-Durlacher J, Donnelly JP. Rubenstein EB; mucositis study section of the multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer; International Society for Oral Oncology. Perspectives on cancer therapy-induced mucosal injury: pathogenesis, measurement, epidemiology, and consequences for patients. Cancer. 2004;100(9 Suppl):1995–2025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Park SB, Lin CS, Krishnan AV, Goldstein D, Friedlander ML, Kiernan MC. Oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity: changes in axonal excitability precede development of neuropathy. Brain. 2009;132(Pt 10):2712–23.  https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awp219. Epub 2009 Sep 10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Windebank AJ, Grisold W. Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2008;13(1):27–46.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8027.2008.00156.x. ReviewCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Freilich RJ, Balmaceda C, Seidman AD, Rubin M, DeAngelis LM. Motor neuropathy due to docetaxel and paclitaxel. Neurology. 1996;47(1):115–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reeves BN, Dakhil SR, Sloan JA, Wolf SL, Burger KN, Kamal A, Le-Lindqwister NA, Soori GS, Jaslowski AJ, Kelaghan J, Novotny PJ, Lachance DH, Loprinzi CL. Further data supporting that paclitaxel-associated acute pain syndrome is associated with development of peripheral neuropathy: north central Cancer treatment group trial N08C1. Cancer. 2012;118(20):5171–8.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27489. Epub 2012 Mar 13. PubMed PMID: 22415454; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3376686CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krarup-Hansen A, Helweg-Larsen S, Schmalbruch H, Rørth M, Krarup C. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy: prospective clinical and neurophysiological studies. Brain. 2007;130(Pt 4):1076–88. Epub 2007 Feb 14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    von Schlippe M, Fowler CJ, Harland SJ. Cisplatin neurotoxicity in the treatment of metastatic germ cell tumour: time course and prognosis. Br J Cancer. 2001;85(6):823–6. PubMed PMID: 11556831; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2375074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Argyriou AA, Cavaletti G, Briani C, Velasco R, Bruna J, Campagnolo M, Alberti P, Bergamo F, Cortinovis D, Cazzaniga M, Santos C, Papadimitriou K, Kalofonos HP. Clinical pattern and associations of oxaliplatin acute neurotoxicity: a prospective study in 170 patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2013;119(2):438–44.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27732. Epub 2012 Jul 11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Verstappen CC, Koeppen S, Heimans JJ, Huijgens PC, Scheulen ME, Strumberg D, Kiburg B, Postma TJ. Dose-related vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy with unexpected off-therapy worsening. Neurology. 2005;64(6):1076–7. PubMed PMID: 15781834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McLeod JG, Penny R. Vincristine neuropathy: an electrophysiological and histological study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1969;32(4):297–304. PubMed PMID: 4309019; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC496516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Legha SS. Vincristine neurotoxicity. Pathophysiology and management. Med Toxicol. 1986;1(6):421–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hershman DL, Unger JM, Crew KD, Minasian LM, Awad D, Moinpour CM, Hansen L, Lew DL, Greenlee H, Fehrenbacher L, Wade JL 3rd, Wong SF, Hortobagyi GN, Meyskens FL, Albain KS. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of acetyl-L-carnitine for the prevention of taxane-induced neuropathy in women undergoing adjuvant breast cancer therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(20):2627–33.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.44.8738. Epub 2013 Jun 3. PubMed PMID: 23733756; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3699727CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alsaab HO, Sau S, Alzhrani R, Tatiparti K, Bhise K, Kashaw SK, Iyer AK. PD-1 and PD-L1 checkpoint signaling inhibition for cancer immunotherapy: mechanism, combinations, and clinical outcome. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fang F, Xiao W, Tian Z. NK cell-based immunotherapy for cancer. Semin Immunol. 2017;31:37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    De Velasco G, Je Y, Bossé D, Awad MM, Ott PA, Moreira RB, Schutz F, Bellmunt J, Sonpavde GP, Hodi FS, Choueiri TK. Comprehensive meta-analysis of key immune-related adverse events from CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in cancer patients. Cancer Immunol Res. 2017;5(4):312–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karina Gritsenko
    • 1
  • Michael Lubrano
    • 2
  1. 1.Montefiore Medical Center – Albert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesia & Perioperative CareUniversity of California San Francisco (UCSF) Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations