Advertisement

Benchmarking Education Policies and Practices of Inclusive Education: Comparative Empirical Research—The Case of Croatia, Italy and Portugal

  • Ljiljana Najev ČačijaEmail author
  • Sanja Bilač
  • Goran Džingalašević
Chapter

Abstract

European education policy is oriented toward the development of efficient and socially sensitive inclusive education. Simultaneously, implementation shows a significant gap with the varying levels of inclusive education among European countries. Problems seem to start with the terminology itself and continue with a lack of generalisable evaluation criteria applicable to a range of education processes related to students with special educational needs (SEN). This chapter aims to develop a framework for benchmarking the policies and practices of inclusive education, based on comparative research in three small countries in Southern and South-East Europe—Croatia, Italy and Portugal. The research results are based on focus group data collected from primary stakeholders of inclusive education practice at the primary level (school teachers and professionals with experience in inclusive education).

Keywords

Benchmarking Inclusive education policy and practice School management and leadership Professional development of teachers 

References

  1. Ainscow, M. (2005). Developing inclusive education systems: What are the levers for change? Journal of Educational Change, 6(2), 109–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainscow, M., & Sandill, A. (2010). Developing inclusive education systems: The role of organisational cultures and leadership. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 14(4), 401–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainscow, M., Farrell, P., & Tweddle, D. (2000). Developing policies for inclusive education: A study of the role of local education authorities. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 4(3), 211–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akalin, S., & Sucuoglu, B. (2015). Effects of classroom management intervention based on teacher training and performance feedback on outcomes of teacher-student dyads in inclusive classrooms. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 15(3), 739–758.Google Scholar
  5. Alquraini, T., & Gut, D. (2012). Critical components of successful inclusion of students with severe disabilities: Literature review. International Journal of Special Education, 27(1), 42–59.Google Scholar
  6. Armstrong, A. C., Armstrong, D., & Spandagou, I. (2009). Inclusive education: International policy & practice. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Arnesen, A. L., & Lundahl, L. (2006). Still social and democratic? Inclusive education policies in the Nordic welfare states. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 50(3), 285–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P., & Burden, R. (2000). A survey into mainstream teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school in one local education authority. Educational Psychology, 20(2), 191–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouillet, D. (2014). Nevidljiva djeca-od prepoznavanja do inkluzije. Zagreb: UNICEF Office for Croatia. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.hr/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Nevidljiva_djeca_publikacija.pdf.
  10. Clifford, N., Cope, M., Gillespie, T., & French, S. (Eds.). (2016). Key methods in geography. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington, DC: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Croatian Bureau of Statistics. (2015). Basic schools and kindergartens and other legal entities implementing preschool education programmes end of 2013/2014 and beginning of 2014/2015 school/pedagogic year. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  12. Devecchi, C., & Nevin, A. (2010). Leadership for inclusive schools and inclusive school leadership. In A. Noremore (Ed.), Global perspectives on educational leadership reform: The development and preparation of leaders of learning and learners of leadership. Advances in Educational Administration, 11, 211–241.Google Scholar
  13. Di Paola, M. F., & Walther-Thomas, C. (2003). Principals and special education: The critical role of school leaders (COPPSE Document No. IB-7). Gainesville: University of Florida, Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.Google Scholar
  14. European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. (2010), Country Data 2010.Google Scholar
  15. Fakolade, O. A., Adeniyi, S. O., & Tella, A. (2017). Attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of special needs children in general education classroom: The case of teachers in some selected schools in Nigeria. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 1(3), 155–169.Google Scholar
  16. Fejgin, N., Talmor, R., & Erlich, I. (2005). Inclusion and burnout in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 11(1), 29–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harris, J., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ingram, P. D. (1997). Leadership behaviours of principals in inclusive educational settings. Journal of Educational Administration, 35(5), 411–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jordan, A., Schwartz, E., & McGhie-Richmond, D. (2009). Preparing teachers for inclusive classrooms. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(4), 535–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kitzinger, J. (1994). The methodology of focus groups: The importance of interaction between research participants. Sociology of Health & Illness, 16(1), 103–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kyriazopoulou, M., & Weber, H. (Eds.). (2009). Development of a set of indicators: For inclusive education in Europe. Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/development-of-a-set-of-indicators-for-inclusive-education-in-europe_Indicators-EN-with-cover.pdf.
  22. Leithwood, K. A., & Riehl, C. (2003). What we know about successful school leadership. Philadelphia, PA: Laboratory for student success, Temple University.Google Scholar
  23. Martı́nez, M. A., Sauleda, N., & Huber, G. L. (2001). Metaphors as blueprints of thinking about teaching and learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(8), 965–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meijer, C. (2001). Inclusive education and effective classroom practices. Literature review. Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from https://www.european-agency.org/publications/ereports/inclusive-education-andeffective-classroom-practice/IECP-Literature-Review.pdf.
  25. Meijer, C., Soriano, V., & Watkins, A. (Eds.). (2003). Special needs education in Europe. Thematic publication. Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/special-needs-education-in-europe_sne_europe_en.pdf.
  26. Mitchell, D. (2007). What really works in special and inclusive education: Using evidence-based teaching strategies. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mittler, P. (2006). Working towards inclusive education, social contexts. London: David Fulton Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. Pivik, J., McComas, J., & Laflamme, M. (2002). Barriers and facilitators to inclusive education. Exceptional Children, 69(1), 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Polat, F. (2011). Inclusion in education: A step towards social justice. International Journal of Educational Development, 31(1), 50–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Powell, R. A., & Single, H. M. (1996). Focus groups. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 8(5), 499–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Saraph, J. V., Benson, P. G., & Schroeder, R. G. (1989). An instrument for measuring the critical factors of quality management. Decision Sciences, 20(4), 810–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shevlin, M., & Rose, R. (2017). Leadership approaches to inclusive education: Learning from an Irish longitudinal study. In M. Milton (Ed.), Inclusive principles and practices in literacy education (pp. 53–67). Bingley: Emerald Publishing.Google Scholar
  33. Sindik, J. (2013). Konstrukcija upitnika stavova odgojiteljica o inkluziji djece s teškoćama u razvoju u dječje vrtiće. Specijalna edukacija i rehabilitacija, 12(3).Google Scholar
  34. Slee, R. (2011). The irregular school: Exclusion, schooling and inclusive education. New York: Taylor & Francis (Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Soodak, L. C. (2003). Classroom management in inclusive settings. Theory into Practice, 42(4), 327–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Subotić, S., & Anđić, B. (2016). Priručnik za upitnik stavova o inkluziji—SINKL 2.0 (NVO “Persona” radni dokument br. 01–2016). Banjaluka, BiH: NVO “Persona”. Retrieved from http://personapsiho.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/SINKL2.pdf.
  37. Topping, K. (2012). Conceptions of inclusion: Widening ideas. In C. Boyle & K. Topping (Eds.), What works in inclusion (pp. 9–19). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  38. UN. (1989). Convention on the rights of the child (CRC). New York: UN.Google Scholar
  39. UN. (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (CRPD). New York: UN.Google Scholar
  40. UNESCO. (1994). World conference on special needs education: Access and quality. Salamanca Declaration and Framework for Action. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  41. UNESCO. (2000). Inclusive education and education for all: A challenge and a vision. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  42. UNESCO. (2008). Inclusive education: The way of the future. Conclusions and recommendations of the 48th session of the International Conference on Education (ICE), Geneva, 25–28 November 2008.Google Scholar
  43. UNESCO. (2009). Policy guidelines on inclusion in education. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  44. Watkins, A., & Ebersold, S. (2016). Efficiency, effectiveness and equity within inclusive education systems. In A. Watkins & C. Meijer (Eds.), Implementing inclusive education: Issues in bridging the policy-practice gap: Vol. 8. International Perspectives on Inclusive Education (pp. 229–253). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  45. Watkins, A., Ebersold, S., & Lénárt, A. (2014). Data collection to inform international policy issues on inclusive education. In C. Forlin & T. Loreman (Eds.), Measuring inclusive education: Vol. 3. International Perspectives on Inclusive Education (pp. 53–74). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Winter, E., & O’Raw, P. (2010). Literature review of the principles and practices relating to inclusive education for children with special educational needs. Trim: National Council for Special Education.Google Scholar
  47. York Barr, J., Sommerness, J., Duke, K., & Ghere, G. (2005). Special educators in inclusive education programmes: Reframing their work as teacher leadership. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 9(2), 193–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ljiljana Najev Čačija
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sanja Bilač
    • 2
  • Goran Džingalašević
    • 3
  1. 1.University of SplitSplitCroatia
  2. 2.Primary School SpinutSplitCroatia
  3. 3.Ca’ Foncello Regional HospitalTrevisoItaly

Personalised recommendations