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Woody Species in Phytoremediation Applications for Contaminated Soils

  • Elena Masarovičová
  • Katarína Kráľová
Chapter

Abstract

Trees as an important part of terrestrial ecosystems were closely connected with humans from ancient times. Since then woody plants found applications in many other practical fields. In this chapter it is presented that woody plants have a substantial role not only for biomass production, in reducing erosion and moderating the climate (extraordinarily important from the aspect of global atmosphere warming), but also for removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, storage of large amount of carbon in their tissues, and release of large part of oxygen into the atmosphere. Attention is particularly devoted to the nontraditional utilization of woody plants in phytoremediation applications, especially in phytoextraction, phytostabilization, and rhizodegradation, when both inorganic and organic contaminants can be removed and a comprehensive overview of phytoremediation potential of fast-growing trees as well as some other common woody species, including also various remarkable (non-exotic, exotic, and invasive) woody plants, is presented. Fast-growing trees, such as poplars or willows, remediate the contaminated soils and work effectively with contaminated wastewater, landfill leachate, and tannery waste out flows. Since these trees have an extensive and massive root system penetrating deeply into the soil, they can ensure efficient uptake of water-containing pollutants from the substrate. It is also mentioned specific application of phytoremediation in the region with large area of salinization of soils when these sites acquire better quality. Introduction of woody species that can survive on contaminated areas is outlined, that is fundamental for landscape restoration. This revegetation (phytorestoration) of barren areas by woody species that efficiently cover the soil thus prevents the migration of contaminated soil particles and soil erosion by wind and surface water run-off. The authors emphasized that success of restoration process relies on a proper understanding of their ecology, namely, the relationships between soil, plants, environmental conditions, and land or forest management.

Keywords

Ecological restoration Ecosystem stability Forests Inorganic and organic contaminants Phytoextraction Phytostabilization Phytoremediation technologies Rhizodegradation Woody plants 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This contribution was financially supported by the “code ITMS 26240120004, funded by the ERDF”.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Soil ScienceComenius University in BratislavaBratislavaSlovak Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of ChemistryComenius University in BratislavaBratislavaSlovak Republic

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