Woody Species in Phytoremediation Applications for Contaminated Soils

  • Elena MasarovičováEmail author
  • Katarína Kráľová


Trees as an important part of terrestrial ecosystems were closely connected with humans from ancient times. Since then woody plants found applications in many other practical fields. In this chapter it is presented that woody plants have a substantial role not only for biomass production, in reducing erosion and moderating the climate (extraordinarily important from the aspect of global atmosphere warming), but also for removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, storage of large amount of carbon in their tissues, and release of large part of oxygen into the atmosphere. Attention is particularly devoted to the nontraditional utilization of woody plants in phytoremediation applications, especially in phytoextraction, phytostabilization, and rhizodegradation, when both inorganic and organic contaminants can be removed and a comprehensive overview of phytoremediation potential of fast-growing trees as well as some other common woody species, including also various remarkable (non-exotic, exotic, and invasive) woody plants, is presented. Fast-growing trees, such as poplars or willows, remediate the contaminated soils and work effectively with contaminated wastewater, landfill leachate, and tannery waste out flows. Since these trees have an extensive and massive root system penetrating deeply into the soil, they can ensure efficient uptake of water-containing pollutants from the substrate. It is also mentioned specific application of phytoremediation in the region with large area of salinization of soils when these sites acquire better quality. Introduction of woody species that can survive on contaminated areas is outlined, that is fundamental for landscape restoration. This revegetation (phytorestoration) of barren areas by woody species that efficiently cover the soil thus prevents the migration of contaminated soil particles and soil erosion by wind and surface water run-off. The authors emphasized that success of restoration process relies on a proper understanding of their ecology, namely, the relationships between soil, plants, environmental conditions, and land or forest management.


Ecological restoration Ecosystem stability Forests Inorganic and organic contaminants Phytoextraction Phytostabilization Phytoremediation technologies Rhizodegradation Woody plants 



This contribution was financially supported by the “code ITMS 26240120004, funded by the ERDF”.


  1. 1.
    Brosse J (1989) Mythologie des Arbres. Plon, Paris, p 360 ISBN 978-2-228-88711-3Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Masarovičová E, Kráľová K (2017) Essential elements and toxic metals in some crops, medicinal plants and trees. In: Ansari A, Gill S, Gill RR, Lanza G, Newman L (eds) Phytoremediation. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, pp 183–255. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pulford ID, Watson C (2003) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees—a review. Environ Int 29:529–540. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pajević S, Borišev M, Nikolić N, Arsenov DD, Orlović S, Župunski M (2016) Phytoextraction of heavy metals by fast-growing trees: a review. In: Ansari A, Gill S, Gill R, Lanza G, Newman L (eds) Phytoremediation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 29–64. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stomp AM, Han KH, Wilbert S, Gordon MP (1993) Genetic improvement of tree species for remediation of hazardous wastes. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 29:227–232. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sarwar N, Imran M, Shaheen MR, Ishaque W, Kamra M, Matloob A, Rehim A, Hussai S (2017) Phytoremediation strategies for soils contaminated with heavy metals: modifications and future perspectives. Chemosphere 171:710–721. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pandey VC, Bajpai O, Singh N (2016) Energy crops in sustainable phytoremediation. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 54:58–73. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kráľová K, Masarovičová E (2006) Plants for the future. Ecol Chem Eng 13:1179–1207 Scholar
  9. 9.
    Masarovičová E, Kráľová K, Peško M (2009) Energetic plants—cost and benefit. Ecol Chem Eng S 16:263–276. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baker AJM (1981) Accumulators and excluders-strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals. J Plant Nutr 3:643–654. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baker AJM, Walker PL (1990) Ecophysiology of metal uptake by tolerant plants. In: Shaw AJ (ed) Heavy metal tolerance in plants: evolutionary aspects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 155–177Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ma LQ, Komar KM, Tu C, Zhang W, Cai Y, Kennelley ED (2001) A fern that hyperaccumulates arsenic. Nature 411:438. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tu C, Ma LQ (2002) Effects of arsenic concentrations and forms on arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumulator ladder brake. J Environ Qual 31:641–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dzantor EK (2007) Phytoremediation: the state of rhizosphere ‘engineering’ for accelerated rhizodegradation of xenobiotic contaminants. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 82:228–232. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Le X, Hui D, Dzantor EK (2011) Characterizing rhizodegradation of the insecticide bifenthrin in two soil types. J Environ Prot 2:940–946. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ashraf MY, Ashraf M, Mahmood K, Akhter J, Hussain F, Arshad M (2010) Phytoremediation of saline soils for sustainable agricultural productivity. In: Ashraf M, Ozturk M, Ahmad M (eds) Plant adaptation and phytoremediation. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 335–355. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Šottníková A, Lunáčková L, Masarovičová E, Lux A, Streško V (2003) Changes in the rooting and growth of willows and poplars induced by cadmium. Biol Plant 46:129–131. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lunáčková L, Masarovičová E, Kráľová K, Streško V (2003) Response of fast growing woody plants from family Salicaceae to cadmium treatment. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 70:576–585. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lunáčková L, Šottníková A, Masarovičová E, Lux A, Streško V (2003) Comparison of cadmium effect on willow and poplar in response to different cultivation conditions. Biol Plant 47:403–411. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tozser D, Magura T, Simon E (2017) Heavy metal uptake by plant parts of willow species: a meta-analysis. J Hazard Mater 336:101–109. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Magdziak Z, Mleczek M, Rutkowski P, Golinski P (2017) Diversity of low-molecular weight organic acids synthesized by Salix growing in soils characterized by different Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations. Acta Physiol Plant 39:137. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arsenov D, Zupunski M, Borisev M, Nikolic N, Orlovic S, Pilipovic A, Pajevic S (2017) Exogenously applied citric acid enhances antioxidant defense and phytoextraction of cadmium by willows (Salix spp.). Water Air Soil Pollut 228:221. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cao YN, Ma CX, Chen GC, Zhang JF, Xing BS (2017) Physiological and biochemical responses of Salix integra Thunb. under copper stress as affected by soil flooding. Environ Pollut 225:644–653. Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shi X, Wang SF, Sun HJ, Chen YT, Wang DX, Pan HW, Zou YZ, Liu JF, Zheng LY, Zhao XL, Jiang ZP (2017) Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:3400–3411. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mleczek M, Rutkowski P, Golinski P, Kaczmarek Z, Szentner K, Waliszewska B, Stolarski M, Szczukowski S (2017) Biological diversity of Salix taxa in Cu, Pb and Zn phytoextraction from soil. Int J Phytoremediation 19:121–132. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Salam MMA, Kaipiainen E, Mohsin M, Villa A, Kuittinen S, Pulkkinen P, Pelkonen P, Mehtatalo L, Pappinen A (2016) Effects of contaminated soil on the growth performance of young Salix (Salix schwerinii E. L. Wolf) and the potential for phytoremediation of heavy metals. J Environ Manage 183:467–477. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shi X, Sun HJ, Chen YT, Pan HW, Wang SF (2016) Transcriptome sequencing and expression analysis of cadmium (Cd) transport and detoxification related genes in Cd-accumulating Salix integra. Front Plant Sci 7:1577. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zemleduch-Barylska A, Lorenc-Plucinska G (2016) Response of leaf and fine roots proteomes of Salix viminalis L. to growth on Cr-rich tannery waste. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:18394–18406. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bart S, Motelica-Heino M, Miard F, Joussein E, Soubrand M, Bourgerie S, Morabito D (2016) Phytostabilization of As, Sb and Pb by two willow species (S. viminalis and S.purpurea) on former mine technosols. Catena 136:44–52. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zarubova P, Hejcman M, Vondrackova S, Mrnka L, Szakova J, Tlustos P (2015) Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:18801–18813. Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van Slycken S, Witters N, Meiresonne L, Meers E, Ruttens A, Van Peteghem P, Weyens N, Tack FMG, Vangronsveld J (2013) Field evaluation of willow under short rotation coppice for phytomanagement of metal-polluted agricultural soils. Int J Phytoremediation 15:677–689. Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guo BH, Dai SX, Wang RG, Guo JK, Ding YZ, Xu YM (2015) Combined effects of elevated CO2 and Cd-contaminated soil on the growth, gas exchange, antioxidant defense, and Cd accumulation of poplars and willows. Environ Exp Bot 115:1–10. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Greger M, Landberg T (2015) Novel field data on phytoextraction: pre-cultivation with Salix reduces cadmium in wheat grains. Int J Phytoremediation 17:917–924. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang QB, Chen GC, Fang J, Lou C, Zhand JF (2014) Characteristics of soil lead tolerance, accumulation and distribution in Salix babylonica Linn. and Salix jiangsuensis J172. Bull Bot Res 34:626–633. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ranieri E, Gikas P (2014) Effects of plants for reduction and removal of hexavalent chromium from a contaminated soil. Water Air Soil Pollut 225:1981. Scholar
  36. 36.
    Konlechner C, Turktas M, Langer I, Vaculik M, Wenzel WW, Puschenreiter M, Hauser MT (2013) Expression of zinc and cadmium responsive genes in leaves of willow (Salix caprea L.) genotypes with different accumulation characteristics. Environ Pollut 178:121–127. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tognetti R, Cocozza C, Marchetti M (2013) Shaping the multifunctional tree: the use of Salicaceae in environmental restoration. FOREST 6:37–47. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hrynkiewicz K, Baum C (2013) Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Environ Technol 34:225–230. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dimitriou I, Mola-Yudego B, Aronsson P, Eriksson J (2012) Changes in organic carbon and trace elements in the soil of willow short-rotation coppice plantations. Bioenergy Res 5:563–572. Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chen GC, Liu ZK, Zhang JF, Owens G (2012) Phytoaccumulation of copper in willow seedlings under different hydrological regimes. Ecol Eng 44:285–289. Scholar
  41. 41.
    Puckett EE, Serapiglia MJ, DeLeon AM, Long S, Minocha R, Smart LB (2012) Differential expression of genes encoding phosphate transporters contributes to arsenic tolerance and accumulation in shrub willow (Salix spp.). Environ Exp Bot 75:248–257. Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mrnka L, Kuchar M, Cieslarova Z, Matejka P, Szakova J, Tlustos P, Vosatka M (2012) Effects of endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi on physiological parameters and heavy metals accumulation of two species from the family Salicaceae. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:399–410. Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gomes MP, Marques TCLLDEM, Silva GH, Soares AM (2011) Utilization of willow (Salix humboldtiana Willd) as a species for phytoremediation of zinc industry waste. Sci For 39:117–123Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mihalik J, Tlustos P, Szakova J (2011) The influence of citric acid on mobility of radium and metals accompanying uranium phytoextraction. Plant Soil Environ 57:526–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhivotovsky OP, Kuzovkina YA, Schulthess CP, Morris T, Pettinelli D (2011) Lead uptake and translocation by willows in pot and field experiments. Int J Phytoremediation 13:731–749. Scholar
  46. 46.
    Li JH, Sun YY, Yin Y, Ji R, Wu JC, Wang XR, Guo HY (2010) Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by autochthonous Willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL ‘J1011’) in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. J Hazard Mater 181:673–678. Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jensen JK, Holm PE, Nejrup J, Larsen MB, Borggaard OK (2009) The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils. Environ Pollut 157:931–937. Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zimmer D, Baum C, Leinweber P, Hrynkiewicz K, Meissner R (2009) Associated bacteria increase the phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from a metal-contaminated soil by mycorrhizal willows. Int J Phytoremediation 11:200–213. Scholar
  49. 49.
    Utmazian MND, Wenzel WW (2007) Cadmium and zinc accumulation in willow and poplar species grown on polluted soils. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 170:265–272. Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nikolic N, Zoric L, Cvetkovic I, Pajevic S, Borisev M, Orlovic S, Pilipovic A (2017) Assessment of cadmium tolerance and phytoextraction ability in young Populus deltoides L. and Populus x euramericana plants through morpho-anatomical and physiological responses to growth in cadmium enriched soil. FOREST 10:635–644. Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ariani A, Romeo S, Groover AT, Sebastiani L (2016) Comparative epigenomic and transcriptomic analysis of Populus roots under excess Zn. Environ Exp Bot 132:16–27. Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lin T, Wan X, Zhang F (2016) The short-term responses of glutathione and phytochelation synthetic pathways genes to additional nitrogen under cadmium stress in poplar leaves. Russ J Plant Physiol 63:754–762. Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rome C, Huang XY, Danku J, Salt DE, Sebastiani L (2016) Expression of specific genes involved in Cd uptake, translocation, vacuolar compartmentalisation and recycling in Populus alba Villafranca clone. J Plant Physiol 202:83–91. Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chen LH, Zhang DJ, Yang WQ, Liu Y, Zhang L, Gao S (2016) Sex-specific responses of Populus deltoides to Glomus intraradices colonization and Cd pollution. Chemosphere 155:196–206. Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ding LP, Wang HZ, Wei JH (2016) Progress and prospect of research in transgenic poplar. iForest Res 29:124–132Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Houda Z, Bejaoui Z, Albouchi A, Gupta DK, Corpas FJ (2016) Comparative study of plant growth of two poplar tree species irrigated with treated wastewater, with particular reference to accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, and Ni). Environ Monit Assess 188:99. Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kubatova P, Hejcman M, Szakova J, Vondrackova S, Tlustos P (2016) Effects of sewage sludge application on biomass production and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in shoots of Salix and Populus clones: improvement of phytoremediation efficiency in contaminated soils. Bioenergy Res 9:809–819. Scholar
  58. 58.
    Samuilov S, Lang F, Djukic M, Djunisijevic-Bojovic D, Rennenberg H (2016) Lead uptake increases drought tolerance of wild type and transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba) overexpressing gsh 1. Environ Pollut 216:773–785. Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wang JH, Li XL, Yang JX (2015) Heavy metal enrichment characteristics of poplar. In: Yingying S, Gurian C, Zhen L (eds) Proceedings of the international conference on logistics, engineering, management and computer science (LEMCS 2015) book series: Advances in intelligent systems research, vol 117. Atlantis Press, Paris, pp 1687–1689Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shi WG, Li H, Liu TX, Polle A, Peng CH, Luo ZB (2015) Exogenous abscisic acid alleviates zinc uptake and accumulation in Populus x canescens exposed to excess zinc. Plant Cell Environ 38:207–223. Scholar
  61. 61.
    He JL, Li H, Ma CF, Zhang YL, Polle A, Rennenberg H, Cheng XQ, Luo ZH (2015) Overexpression of bacterial γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase mediates changes in cadmium influx, allocation and detoxification in poplar. New Phytol 205:240–254. Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hu YH, Nan ZR, Jin C, Wang N, Luo HZ (2014) Phytoextraction potential of poplar (Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge) from calcareous agricultural soils contaminated by cadmium. Int J Phytoremediation 16:482–495. Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hu YH, Nan ZR, Su JQ, Wang SL (2014) Chelant-assisted uptake and accumulation of Cd by poplar from calcareous arable soils around Baiyin nonferrous metal smelters, Northern China. Arid Land Res Manag 28:340–354. Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lingua G, Todeschini V, Grimaldi M, Baldantoni D, Proto A, Cicatelli A, Biondi S, Torrigiani P, Castiglione S (2014) Polyaspartate, a biodegradable chelant that improves the phytoremediation potential of poplar in a highly metal-contaminated agricultural soil. J Environ Manage 132:9–15. Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cicatelli A, Torrigiani P, Todeschini V, Biondi S, Castiglione S, Lingua G (2014) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a tool to ameliorate the phytoremediation potential of poplar: biochemical and molecular aspects. iFOREST 7:333–341. Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stobrawa K (2014) Poplars (Populus spp.): ecological role, applications and scientific perspectives in the 21st century (Review paper). Balt For 20:204–213Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Radojčić Redovniković I, De Marco A, Proietti C, Hanousek K, Sedak M, Bilandžić N, Jakovljević T (2017) Poplar response to cadmium and lead soil contamination. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 144:482–489. Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pottier M, de la Torre VSG, Victor C, David LC, Chalot M, Thomine S (2015) Genotypic variations in the dynamics of metal concentrations in poplar leaves: a field study with a perspective on phytoremediation. Environ Pollut 199:73–82. Scholar
  69. 69.
    Baldantoni D, Cicatelli A, Bellino A, Castiglione S (2014) Different behaviours in phytoremediation capacity of two heavy metal tolerant poplar clones in relation to iron and other trace elements. J Environ Manage 146:94–99. Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hu YH, Nan ZR, Su JQ, Wang N (2013) Heavy metal accumulation by poplar in calcareous soil with various degrees of multi-metal contamination: implications for phytoextraction and phytostabilization. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:7194–7203. Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rafati M, Khorasani N, Moattar F, Shirvany A, Moraghebi F, Hosseinzadeh S (2011) Phytoremediation potential of Populus alba and Morus alba for cadmium, chromuim and nickel absorption from polluted soil. Int J Environ Res 5:961–970. Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wang Q, Xiong D, Zhao P, Yu X, Tu B, Wang G (2011) Effect of applying an arsenic-resistant and plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium to enhance soil arsenic phytoremediation by Populus deltoides LH05-17. J Appl Microbiol 111:1065–1074. Scholar
  73. 73.
    Labidi S, Firmin S, Verdin A, Bidar G, Laruelle F, Douay F, Shirali P, Fontaine J, Sahraoui ALH (2017) Nature of fly ash amendments differently influences oxidative stress alleviation in four forest tree species and metal trace element phytostabilization in aged contaminated soil: a long-term field experiment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 138:190–198. Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pourrut B, Lopareva-Pohu A, Pruvot C, Garcon G, Verdin A, Waterlot C, Bidar G, Shirali P, Douay F (2011) Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial Part 2. Influence on plants. Sci Total Environ 409:4504–4510. Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kalubi KN, Mehes-Smith M, Omri A (2016) Comparative analysis of metal translocation in red maple (Acer rubrum) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) populations from stressed ecosystems contaminated with metals. Chem Ecol 32:312–323. Scholar
  76. 76.
    Djukic M, Bojovic DD, Grbic M, Skocajic D, Obratov-Petkovic D, Bjedov I (2013) Effect of Cd and Pb on Ailanthus altissima and Acer negundo seed germination and early seedling growth. Fresen Environ Bull 22:524–530Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Vandecasteele B, Samyn J, De Vos B, Muys B (2008) Effect of tree species choice and mineral capping in a woodland phytostabilisation system: a case-study for calcareous dredged sediment landfills with an oxidised topsoil. Ecol Eng 32:263–273. Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mertens J, Vervaeke P, De Schrijver A, Luyssaert S (2004) Metal uptake by young trees from dredged brackish sediment: limitations and possibilities for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation. Sci Total Environ 326:209–215. Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fernandez-Fuego D, Keunen E, Cuypers A, Bertrand A, Gonzalez A (2017) Mycorrhization protects Betula pubescens Ehr. from metal-induced oxidative stress increasing its tolerance to grow in an industrial polluted soil. J Hazard Mater 336:119–127. Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fernandez R, Bertrand A, Casares A, Garcia R, Gonzalez A, Tames RS (2008) Cadmium accumulation and its effect on the in vitro growth of woody fleabane and mycorrhized white birch. Environ Pollut 152:522–529. Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zloch M, Thiem D, Gadzala-Kopciuch R, Hrynkiewicz K (2016) Synthesis of siderophores by plant-associated metallotolerant bacteria under exposure to Cd2+. Chemosphere 156:312–325. Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dmuchowski W, Gozdowski D, Bragoszewska P, Baczewska AH, Suwara I (2014) Phytoremediation of zinc contaminated soils using silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). Ecol Eng 71:32–35. Scholar
  83. 83.
    Theriault G, Nkongolo KK, Michael P (2014) Genetic and metal analyses of fragmented populations of Betula papyrifera (Marsh) in a mining reclaimed region: identification of population-diagnostic molecular marker. Ecol Evol 4:3435–3443. Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rodriguez-Seijo A, Arenas-Lago D, Lago-Vila M, Vega F, Couce LA (2014) Limitations for revegetation in lead/zinc minesoils (NW Spain). J Soil Sediment 14:785–793. Scholar
  85. 85.
    Alagic SC, Serbula SS, Tosic SB, Pavlovic AN, Petrovic JV (2013) Bioaccumulation of arsenic and cadmium in birch and lime from the Bor region. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 65:671–682. Scholar
  86. 86.
    Migeon A, Richaud P, Guinet F, Chalot M, Blaudez D (2009) Metal accumulation by woody species on contaminated sites in the North of France. Water Air Soil Pollut 204:89–101. Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lievens C, Yperman J, Vangronsveld J, Carleer R (2008) Study of the potential valorisation of heavy metal contaminated biomass via phytoremediation by fast pyrolysis: part I. Influence of temperature, biomass species and solid heat carrier on the behaviour of heavy metals. Fuel 87:1894–1905. Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lievens C, Yperman J, Cornelissen T, Carleer R (2008) Study of the potential valorisation of heavy metal contaminated biomass via phytoremediation by fast pyrolysis: part II: characterisation of the liquid and gaseous fraction as a function of the temperature. Fuel 87:1906–1916. Scholar
  89. 89.
    Baltrenaite E, Butkus D (2007) Modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb transport from soil to seedlings of coniferous and leafy trees. J Environ Eng Landsc 15:200–207Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hung H, Mackay D (1997) A novel and simple model of the uptake of organic chemicals by vegetation from air and soil. Chemosphere 35:959–977. Scholar
  91. 91.
    Soudek P, Petrova S, Benesova D, Tykva R, Vankova R, Vanek T (2007) Comparison of Ra-226 nuclide from soil by three woody species Betula pendula, Sambucus nigra and Alnus glutinosa during the vegetation period. J Environ Radioact 97:76–82. Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wislocka M, Krawczyk J, Klink A, Morrison L (2006) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by selected plant species from uranium mining dumps in the Sudety Mts., Poland. Pol J Environ Stud 15:811–818Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Klassen SP, McLean JE, Grossl PR, Sims RC (2000) Fate and behavior of lead in soils planted with metal-resistant species (river birch and small wing sedge). J Environ Qual 29:1826–1834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Qian Y, Gallagher FJ, Feng H, Wu MY, Zhu QZ (2014) Vanadium uptake and translocation in dominant plant species on an urban coastal brownfield site. Sci Total Environ 476:696–704. Scholar
  95. 95.
    Oh CY, Lee JC, Han SH, Kim PG (2004) Characteristics of Cd accumulation and phytoremediation among three half-sib families of Betula schmidtii. Korean J Agric For Meteor 6:204–209Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Yeo JK, Kim IS, Koo YB, Lee JC (2001) Uptake and tolerance to lead in Populus alba X glandulosa and Betula schmidtii. J Korean Forestry Soc 90:600–607Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Huang L, Zhang HQ, Song YY, Yang YR, Chen H, Tang M (2017) Subcellular compartmentalization and chemical forms of lead participate in lead tolerance of Robinia pseudoacacia L. with Funneliformis mosseae. Front Plant Sci 8:517. Scholar
  98. 98.
    Huang SP, Jia X, Zhao YH, Chang YF, Bai B (2016) Response of Robinia pseudoacacia L. rhizosphere microenvironment to Cd and Pb contamination and elevated temperature. Appl Soil Ecol 108:269–277. Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jia X, Zhao YH, Liu T, Huang SP (2016) Elevated CO2 affects secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils. Chemosphere 160:199–207. Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kaya G, Yaman M (2008) Trace metal concentrations in cupressaceae leaves as biomonitors of environmental pollution. Trace Elem Electroly 25:156–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rosselli W, Keller C, Boschi K (2003) Phytoextraction capacity of trees growing on a metal contaminated soil. Plant Soil 256:265–272. Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pinheiro JC, Marques CR, Pinto G, Bouguerra S, Mendo S, Gomes NC, Goncalves F, Rocha-Santos T, Duarte AC, Roembke J, Sousa JP, Ksibi M, Haddioui A, Pereira R (2013) The performance of Fraxinus angustifolia as a helper for metal phytoremediation programs and its relation to the endophytic bacterial communities. Geoderma 202:171–182. Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rabeda I, Bilski H, Mellerowicz EJ, Napieralska A, Suski S, Wozny A, Krzeslowska M (2015) Colocalization of low-methylesterified pectins and Pb deposits in the apoplast of aspen roots exposed to lead. Environ Pollut 205:315–326. Scholar
  104. 104.
    Krzeslowska M, Rabeda I, Basinska A, Lewandowski M, Mellerowicz EJ, Napieralska A, Samardakiewicz S, Wozny A (2016) Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation—a common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Environ Pollut 214:354–361. Scholar
  105. 105.
    Langer I, Santner J, Krpata D, Fitz WJ, Wenzel WW, Schweiger PF (2012) Ectomycorrhizal impact on Zn accumulation of Populus tremula L. grown in metalliferous soil with increasing levels of Zn concentration. Plant Soil 355:283–297. Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hassinen V, Vallinkoski VM, Issakainen S, Tervahauta A, Karenlampi S, Servomaa K (2009) Correlation of foliar MT2b expression with Cd and Zn concentrations in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) grown in contaminated soil. Environ Pollut 157:922–930. Scholar
  107. 107.
    Weih M (2004) Intensive short rotation forestry in boreal climates: present and future perspectives. Can J For Res 34:1369–1378. Scholar
  108. 108.
    Dutton MV, Humphreys PN (2005) Assessing the potential of short rotation coppice (SRC) for cleanup of radionuclide-contaminated sites. Int J Phytoremediation 7:279–293. Scholar
  109. 109.
    He JL, Li H, Luo J, Ma CF, Li SJ, Qu L, Gai Y, Jiang XN, Janz D, Polle A, Tyree M, Luo ZB (2013) A transcriptomic network underlies microstructural and physiological responses to cadmium in Populus x canescens. Plant Physiol 162:424–439. Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shim D, Kim S, Choi YI, Song WY, Park J, Youk ES, Jeong SC, Martinoia E, Noh EW, Lee Y (2013) Transgenic poplar trees expressing yeast cadmium factor 1 exhibit the characteristics necessary for the phytoremediation of mine tailing soil. Chemosphere 90:1478–1486. Scholar
  111. 111.
    Durand TC, Sergeant K, Planchon S, Carpin S, Label P, Morabito D, Hausman JF, Renaut J (2010) Acute metal stress in Populus tremula x P. alba (717-1B4 genotype): leaf and cambial proteome changes induced by cadmium(2+). Proteomics 10:349–368. Scholar
  112. 112.
    Freitas H, Prasad MNV, Pratas J (2004) Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation—relevance to the management of mine environment. Chemosphere 54:1625–1642. Scholar
  113. 113.
    Parraga-Aguado I, Alvarez-Rogel J, Gonzalez-Alcaraz MN, Jimenez-Carceles FJ, Conesa HM (2013) Assessment of metal(loid)s availability and their uptake by Pinus halepensis in a Mediterranean forest impacted by abandoned tailings. Ecol Eng 58:84–90. Scholar
  114. 114.
    Alahabadi A, Ehrampoush MH, Miri M, Aval HE, Yousefzadeh S, Ghaffari HR, Ahmadi E, Talebi P, Fathabadi ZA, Babai F, Nikoonahad A, Sharafi K, Hosseini-Bandegharaei A (2017) A comparative study on capability of different tree species in accumulating heavy metals from soil and ambient air. Chemosphere 172:459–467. Scholar
  115. 115.
    Abbasi H, Pourmajidian MR, Hodjati SM, Fallah A, Nath S (2017) Effect of soil-applied lead on mineral contents and biomass in Acer cappadocicum, Fraxinus excelsior and Platycladus orientalis seedlings. iFOREST 10:722–728. Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sugiura Y, Shibata M, Ogata Y, Ozawa H, Kanasashi T, Takenaka C (2016) Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. J Environ Radioact 160:8–24. Scholar
  117. 117.
    Saba G, Parizanganeh AH, Zamani A, Saba J (2015) Phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated environments: screening for native accumulator plants in Zanjan-Iran. Int J Environ Res 9:309–316Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Liu J, Zhang XH, Li TY, Wu QX, Jin ZJ (2014) Soil characteristics and heavy metal accumulation by native plants in a Mn mining area of Guangxi, South China. Environ Monit Assess 186:2269–2279. Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wang Y, Bai S, Wu J, Chen J, Yang Y, Zhu X, Zhu T (2015) Plumbum/zinc accumulation in seedlings of six afforestation species cultivated in mine spoil substrate. J Trop For Sci 27:166–175. Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ozen SA, Yaman M (2016) Phytoextraction of lead and its relationship with histidine in six plant species using ICP-MS and HPLC-MS. Chem Ecol 32:346–356. Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lu Y, Li XR, He MZ, Zeng FJ, Li XY (2017) Accumulation of heavy metals in native plants growing on mining-influenced sites in Jinchang: a typical industrial city (China). Environ Earth Sci 76:446. Scholar
  122. 122.
    Yang YR, Liang Y, Ghosh A, Song YY, Chen H, Tang M (2015) Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status and heavy metal accumulation characteristics of tree species in a lead-zinc mine area: potential applications for phytoremediation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:13179–13193. Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kang W, Bao JG, Zheng J, Zou T, Min JH, Yang Y (2014) Analysis on heavy metal enrichment ability of woody plants at ancient copper mine site in Tonglushan of Hubei Province. J Plant Resour Environ 23:78–84. Scholar
  124. 124.
    Antonijevic MM, Dimitrijevic MD, Milic SM, Nujkic MM (2012) Metal concentrations in the soils and native plants surrounding the old flotation tailings pond of the Copper Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (Serbia). J Environ Monit 14:866–877. Scholar
  125. 125.
    Monfared SH, Matinizadeh M, Shirvany A, Amiri GZ, Fard RM, Rostami F (2013) Accumulation of heavy metal in Platanus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia and Fraxinus rotundifolia. J For Res 24:391–395. Scholar
  126. 126.
    Shen J, Song LL, Muller K, Hu YY, Song Y, Yu WW, Wang HL, Wu JS (2016) Magnesium alleviates adverse effects of lead on growth, photosynthesis, and ultrastructural alterations of Torreya grandis seedlings. Front Plant Sci 7:1819. Scholar
  127. 127.
    Shanker AK, Ravichandran V, Pathmanabhan G (2005) Phytoaccumulation of chromium by some multipurpose-tree seedlings. Agr Syst 64:83–87. Scholar
  128. 128.
    Meeinkuirt W, Kruatrachue M, Pichtel J, Phusantisampan T, Saengwilai P (2016) Influence of organic amendments on phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus camaldulensis. ScienceAsia 42:83–91. Scholar
  129. 129.
    Madejon P, Maranon T, Navarro-Fernandez CM, Dominguez MT, Alegre JM, Robinson B, Murillo JM (2017) Potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis for phytostabilization and biomonitoring of trace element contaminated soils. PLoS One 12:e0180240. Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ouaryi A, Boularbah A, Sanguin H, Hafidi M, Baudoin E, Ouahmane L, Le Roux C, Galiana A, Prin Y, Duponnois R (2016) High potential of symbiotic interactions between native mycorrhizal fungi and the exotic tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis for phytostabilization of metal-contaminated arid soils. Int J Phytoremediation 18:41–47. Scholar
  131. 131.
    Aggangan NS, Aggangan BJS (2012) Selection of ectomycorrhizal fungi and tree species for rehabilitation of Cu mine tailings in the Philippines. J Environ Sci Manag 15:59–71Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Guarino C, Conte B, Spada V, Arena S, Sciarrillo R, Scaloni A (2014) Proteomic analysis of eucalyptus leaves unveils putative mechanisms involved in the plant response to a real condition of soil contamination by multiple heavy metals in the presence or absence of mycorrhizal/rhizobacterial additives. Environ Sci Technol 48:11487–11496. Scholar
  133. 133.
    Melo RF, Dias LE, de Assis IR (2016) Behavior of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus citriodora seedlings grown in soil contaminated by arsenate. Rev Bras Ciênc Solo 40:e0150310. Scholar
  134. 134.
    Melo RF, Dias LE, de Mello JWV, Oliveira JA (2010) Behavior of Eucalyptus grandis and E. cloeziana seedlings grown in arsenic-contaminated soil. Rev Bras Ciênc Solo 34:985–992. Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sanchez-Palacios JT, Callahan D, Baker AJM, Woodrow IE, Doronila AI, Wang YD, Collins RN (2012) Arsenic response in roots of Eucalyptus spp. In: Ng JC, Noller BN, Naidu R, Bundschuh J, Bhattacharya P (eds) Understanding the geological and medical interface of arsenic. AS 2012 Book series: Arsenic in the environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 332–334Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    King DJ, Doronila AI, Feenstra C, Baker AJM, Woodrow IE (2008) Phytostabilisation of arsenical gold mine tailings using four Eucalyptus species: growth, arsenic uptake and availability after five years. Sci Total Environ 406:35–42. Scholar
  137. 137.
    Luo J, Qi SH, Peng L, Wang JJ (2016) Phytoremediation efficiency of CD by Eucalyptus globulus transplanted from polluted and unpolluted sites. Int J Phytoremediation 18:308–314. Scholar
  138. 138.
    Mughini G, Alianiello F, Benedetti A, Gras LM, Gras MA, Salvati L (2013) Clonal variation in growth, arsenic and heavy metal uptakes of hybrid Eucalyptus clones in a Mediterranean environment. Agr Syst 87:755–766. Scholar
  139. 139.
    Marchiol L, Fellet G, Boscutti F, Montella C, Mozzi R, Guarino C (2013) Gentle remediation at the former “Pertusola Sud” zinc smelter: evaluation of native species for phytoremediation purposes. Ecol Eng 53:343–353. Scholar
  140. 140.
    Meeinkuirt W, Pokethitiyook P, Kruatrachue M, Tanhan P, Chaiyarat R (2012) Phytostabilization of a Pb-contaminated mine tailings by various tree species in pot and field trial experiments. Int J Phytoremediation 14:925–938. Scholar
  141. 141.
    Shukla OP, Juwarkar AA, Singh SK, Khan S, Rai UN (2011) Growth responses and metal accumulation capabilities of woody plants during the phytoremediation of tannery sludge. Waste Manag 31:115–123. Scholar
  142. 142.
    Arriagada C, Pereira G, Garcia-Romera I, Ocampo JA (2010) Improved zinc tolerance in Eucalyptus globulus inoculated with Glomus deserticola and Trametes versicolor or Coriolopsis rigida. Soil Biol Biochem 42:118–124. Scholar
  143. 143.
    Arriagada C, Aranda E, Sampedro I, Garcia-Romera I, Ocampo JA (2009) Interactions of Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis rigida and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the copper tolerance of Eucalyptus globulus. Chemosphere 77:273–278. Scholar
  144. 144.
    Dhillon KS, Dhillon SK, Thind HS (2008) Evaluation of different agroforestry tree species for their suitability in the phytoremediation of seleniferous soils. Soil Use Manag 24:208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Arriagada CA, Herrera MA, Borie F, Ocampo JA (2007) Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal and saprobe fungi to the aluminum resistance of Eucalyptus globulus. Water Air Soil Pollut 182:383–394. Scholar
  146. 146.
    Raju D, Kumar S, Mehta UJ, Hazra S (2008) Differential accumulation of manganese in three mature tree species (Holoptelea, Cassia, Neem) growing on a mine dump. Curr Sci 94:639–643Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Yang N, Zhou FR, Wang JX (2016) Eco-toxicological effects of two kinds of lead compounds on forest tree seed in alkaline soil. Environ Monit Assess 188:201. Scholar
  148. 148.
    Zong K, Huang J, Nara K, Chen YH, Shen ZG, Lian CL (2015) Inoculation of ectomycorrhizal fungi contributes to the survival of tree seedlings in a copper mine tailing. J For Res 20:493–500. Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sousa NR, Ramos MA, Marques APGC, Castro PML (2014) A genotype dependent-response to cadmium contamination in soil is displayed by Pinus pinaster in symbiosis with different mycorrhizal fungi. Appl Soil Ecol 76:7–13. Scholar
  150. 150.
    Babu AG, Kim JD, Oh BT (2013) Enhancement of heavy metal phytoremediation by Alnus firma with endophytic Bacillus thuringiensis GDB-1. J Hazard Mater 250:477–483. Scholar
  151. 151.
    Yang JX, Yao DX, Li XL, Zhang ZG (2011) Research on effect of woody plants remediation heavy metal. In: Jin D, Lin S (eds) Advances in computer science, intelligent system and environment. Book series: Advances in intelligent and soft computing, vol 106, pp 679–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    de Carcer DA, Martin M, Karlson U, Rivilla R (2007) Changes in bacterial populations and in biphenyl dioxygenase gene diversity in a polychlorinated biphenyl-polluted soil after introduction of willow trees for rhizoremediation. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:6224–6232. Scholar
  153. 153.
    Yergeau E, Sanschagrin S, Maynard C, St-Arnaud M, Greer CW (2014) Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination. ISME J 8:344–358. Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gao Y, Yang Y, Ling W, Kong H, Zhu X (2011) Gradient distribution of root exudates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rhizosphere soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 75:1694–1703. Scholar
  155. 155.
    Xie XM, Liao M, Yang J, Chai JJ, Fang S, Wang RH (2012) Influence of root-exudates concentration on pyrene degradation and soil microbial characteristics in pyrene contaminated soil. Chemosphere 88:1190–1195. Scholar
  156. 156.
    Cook RL, Landmeyer JE, Atkinson B, Messier JP, Nichols EG (2010) Field note: successful establishment of a phytoremediation system at a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated shallow aquifer: trends, trials, and tribulations. Int J Phytoremediation 12:716–732. Scholar
  157. 157.
    da Cunha ACB, Sabedot S, Sampaio CH, Ramos CG, da Silva AR (2012) Salix rubens and Salix triandra species as phytoremediators of soil contaminated with petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:4723–4731. Scholar
  158. 158.
    Ferro AM, Adham T, Berra B, Tsao D (2013) Performance of deep-rooted phreatophytic trees at a site containing total petroleum hydrocarbons. Int J Phytoremediation 15:232–244. Scholar
  159. 159.
    Argus GW (2007) Salix (Salicaceae) distribution maps and a synopsis of their classification in North America, North of Mexico. Harvard Pap Bot 12:335–368.[335:SSDMAA]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Jia H, Wang H, Lu HL, Jiang S, Dai MY, Liu JC, Yan CL (2016) Rhizodegradation potential and tolerance of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh in phenanthrene and pyrene contaminated sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 110:112–118. Scholar
  161. 161.
    Page AP, Yergeau E, Greer CW (2015) Salix purpurea stimulates the expression of specific bacterial xenobiotic degradation genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. PLoS One 10:e0132062. Scholar
  162. 162.
    Yang XH, Garnier P, Wang SZ, Bergheaud V, Huang XF, Qiu RL (2014) PAHs sorption and desorption on soil influenced by pine needle litter-derived dissolved organic matter. Pedosphere 24:575–584. Scholar
  163. 163.
    Wang YY, Fang L, Lin L, Luan TG, Tam NFY (2014) Effects of low molecular-weight organic acids and dehydrogenase activity in rhizosphere sediments of mangrove plants on phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Chemosphere 99:152–159. Scholar
  164. 164.
    Oleszczuk P, Godlewska P, Reible DD, Kraska P (2017) Bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in activated carbon or biochar amended vegetated (Salix viminalis) soil. Environ Pollut 227:406–413. Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hultgren J, Pizzul L, Castillo MD, Granhall U (2010) Degradation of PAH in a creosote-contaminated soil. A comparison between the effects of willows (Salix viminalis), wheat straw and a nonionic surfactant. Int J Phytoremediation 12:54–66. Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rezek J, der Wiesche C, Mackova M, Zadrazil F, Macek T (2009) Biodegradation of PAHs in long-term contaminated soil cultivated with European white birch (Betula pendula) and red mulberry (Morus rubra) tree. Int J Phytoremediation 11:66–81. Scholar
  167. 167.
    Sipila TP, Keskinen A, Akerman ML, Fortelius C, Haahtela K, Yrjala K (2008) High aromatic ring-cleavage diversity in birch rhizosphere: PAH treatment-specific changes of IE3 group extradiol dioxygenases and 16S rRNA bacterial communities in soil. ISME J 2:968–981. Scholar
  168. 168.
    Spriggs T, Banks MK, Schwab P (2005) Phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant-impacted soil. J Environ Qual 34:1755–1762. Scholar
  169. 169.
    Bergeron JM, Crews D, McLachlan JA (1994) PCBs as environmental estrogens: turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination. Environ Health Perspect 102:780–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Morgan M, Deoraj A, Felty Q, Roy D (2017) Environmental estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals and breast cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol 457:89–102. Scholar
  171. 171.
    Ancona V, Caracciolo AB, Grenni P, Di Lenola M, Campanale C, Calabrese A, Uricchio VF, Mascolo G, Massacci A (2017) Plant-assisted bioremediation of a historically PCB and heavy metal-contaminated area in Southern Italy. N Biotechnol 38B:65–73. Scholar
  172. 172.
    Ficko SA, Rutter A, Zeeb BA (2010) Potential for phytoextraction of PCBs from contaminated soils using weeds. Sci Total Environ 408:3469–3476. Scholar
  173. 173.
    Meggo RE, Schnoor JL (2013) Cleaning polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated garden soil by phytoremediation. Environ Sci (Ruse) 1:33–52. Scholar
  174. 174.
    Zhai G, Lehmler HJ, Schnoor JL (2010) Hydroxylated metabolites of 4-monochlorobiphenyl and its metabolic pathway in whole poplar plants. Environ Sci Technol 44:3901–3907. Scholar
  175. 175.
    Zhai G, Lehmler HJ, Schnoor JL (2010) Identification of hydroxylated metabolites of 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl and metabolic pathway in whole poplar plants. Chemosphere 81:523–528. Scholar
  176. 176.
    Zhai G, Lehmler HJ, Schnoor JL (2011) New hydroxylated metabolites of 4-monochlorobiphenyl in whole poplar plants. Chem Cent J 5:87. Scholar
  177. 177.
    Zhai G, Lehmler HJ, Schnoor JL (2013) Sulfate metabolites of 4-monochlorobiphenyl in whole poplar plants. Environ Sci Technol 47:557–562. Scholar
  178. 178.
    Zhai G, Hu D, Lehmler HJ, Schnoor JL (2011) Enantioselective biotransformation of chiral PCBs in whole poplar plants. Environ Sci Technol 45:2308–2316. Scholar
  179. 179.
    Zhai G, Gutowski SM, Lehmler HJ, Schnoor JL (2014) Enantioselective transport and biotransformation of chiral hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls in whole poplar plants. Environ Sci Technol 48:12213–12220. Scholar
  180. 180.
    Ma CX, Zhai GS, Wu HM, Kania-Korwel I, Lehmler HJ, Schnoor JL (2016) Identification of a novel hydroxylated metabolite of 2,2′,3,5′,6-pentachlorobiphenyl formed in whole poplar plants. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:2089–2098. Scholar
  181. 181.
    Macci C, Peruzzi E, Doni S, Poggio G, Masciandaro G (2016) The phytoremediation of an organic and inorganic polluted soil: a real scale experience. Int J Phytoremediation 18:378–386. Scholar
  182. 182.
    Meggo E, Schnoor JL, Hu DF (2013) Dechlorination of PCBs in the rhizosphere of switchgrass and poplar. Environ Pollut 178:312–321. Scholar
  183. 183.
    Slater H, Gouin T, Leigh MB (2011) Assessing the potential for rhizoremediation of PCB contaminated soils in northern regions using native tree species. Chemosphere 84:199–206. Scholar
  184. 184.
    Leigh MB, Prouzova P, Mackova M, Macek T, Nagle DP, Fletcher JS (2006) Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with trees in a PCB-contaminated site. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:2331–2342. Scholar
  185. 185.
    Moore FP, Barac T, Borremans B, Oeyen L, Vangronsveld J, van der Lelie D, Campbell CD, Moore ERB (2006) Endophytic bacterial diversity in poplar trees growing on a BTEX-contaminated site: the characterisation of isolates with potential to enhance phytoremediation. Syst Appl Microbiol 29:539–556. Scholar
  186. 186.
    Collins C, Laturnus F, Nepovim A (2002) Remediation of BTEX and trichloroethene—current knowledge with special emphasis on phytoremediation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 9:86–94. Scholar
  187. 187.
    Schoeftner P, Watzinger A, Holzknecht P, Wimmer B, Reichenauer TG (2016) Transpiration and metabolisation of TCE by willow plants—a pot experiment. Int J Phytoremediation 18:686–692. Scholar
  188. 188.
    Lewis J, Qvarfort U, Sjostrom J (2015) Betula pendula: a promising candidate for phytoremediation of TCE in northern climates. Int J Phytoremediation 17:9–15. Scholar
  189. 189.
    El-Gendy AS, Svingos S, Brice D, Garretson JH, Schnoor J (2009) Assessments of the efficacy of a long-term application of a phytoremediation system using hybrid poplar trees at former oil tank farm sites. Water Environ Res 81:486–498. Scholar
  190. 190.
    Gunderson JJ, Knight JD, Van Rees KCJ (2007) Impact of ectomycorrhizal colonization of hybrid poplar on the remediation of diesel-contaminated soil. J Environ Qual 36:927–934. Scholar
  191. 191.
    Agbogidi OM, Dolor ED, Okechukwu EM (2007) Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn.) and Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) for phytoremediation in crude oil contaminated soils. Agric Conspec Sci 72:149–152Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Sun WHH, Lo JB, Robert FM, Ray C, Tang CS (2004) Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in tropical coastal soils—I. Selection of promising woody plants. Environ Sci Pollut Res 11:260–266. Scholar
  193. 193.
    Jones RK, Sun WHH, Tang CS, Robert FM (2004) Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in tropical coastal soils—II. Microbial response to plant roots and contaminant. Environ Sci Pollut Res 11:340–346. Scholar
  194. 194.
    Tesar M, Reichenauer TG, Sessitsch A (2002) Bacterial rhizosphere populations of black poplar and herbal plants to be used for phytoremediation of diesel fuel. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1883–1892. Scholar
  195. 195.
    Shan BQ, Zhang YT, Cao QL, Kang ZY, Li SY (2014) Growth responses of six leguminous plants adaptable in Northern Shaanxi to petroleum contaminated soil. Huanjing Kexue 35:1125–1130. Scholar
  196. 196.
    McIntosh P, Kuzovkina YA, Schulthess CP, Guillard K (2016) Breakdown of low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil using grasses and willows. Int J Phytoremediation 18:656–663. Scholar
  197. 197.
    Leewis MC, Uhlik O, Fraraccio S, McFarlin K, Kottara A, Glover C, Macek T, Leigh MB (2016) Differential impacts of willow and mineral fertilizer on bacterial communities and biodegradation in diesel fuel oil-contaminated soil. Front Microbiol 7:837. Scholar
  198. 198.
    Dadrasnia A, Agamuthu P (2013) Organic wastes to enhance phyto-treatment of diesel-contaminated soil. Waste Manag Res 31:1133–1139. Scholar
  199. 199.
    Best EPH, Kvesitadze G, Khatisashvili G, Sadunishvili T (2005) Plant processes important for the transformation and degradation of explosives contaminants. Z Naturforsch C 60:340–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Van Aken B, Yoon JM, Schnoor JL (2004) Biodegradation of nitro-substituted explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, an octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5-tetrazocine by a phytosymbiotic Methylobacterium sp associated with poplar tissues (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34). Appl Environ Microbiol 70:508–517. Scholar
  201. 201.
    van Dillewijn P, Couselo JL, Corredoira E, Delgado A, Wittich RM, Ballester A, Ramos JL (2008) Bioremediation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by bacterial nitroreductase expressing transgenic aspen. Environ Sci Technol 42:7405–7410. Scholar
  202. 202.
    Schoenmuth BW, Pestemer W (2004) Dendroremediation of trinitrotoluene (TNT)—part 2: fate of radio-labelled TNT in trees. Environ Sci Pollut Res 11:331–339. Scholar
  203. 203.
    Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Alam MM, Bhowmik PC, Hossain MA, Rahman MM, Prasad MNV, Ozturk M, Fujita M (2014) Potential use of halophytes to remediate saline soils. Biomed Res Int 2014:589341. Scholar
  204. 204.
    Mirck J, Zalesny RS (2015) Mini-review of knowledge gaps in salt tolerance of plants applied to willows and poplars. Int J Phytoremediation 17:640–650. Scholar
  205. 205.
    Qadir M, Oster JD, Schubert S, Noble AD, Sahrawat KL (2007) Phytoremediation of sodic and saline-sodic soils. Adv Agron 96:197–247. Scholar
  206. 206.
    Liang L, Liu WT, Sun YB, Huo XH, Li S, Zhou QX (2017) Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated saline soils using halophytes: current progress and future perspectives. Environ Rev 25:269–281. Scholar
  207. 207.
    Walter H (1961) Salinity problems in the acid zones. The adaptations of plants to saline soils. Arid Zone Res 14:65–68Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Dagar JC (2009) Opportunities for alternative land uses in salty and water scarcity areas. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 35:53–66Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Ladeiro B (2012) Saline agriculture in the 21st century: using salt contaminated resources to cope food requirements. J Bot 2012:310705. Scholar
  210. 210.
    Ashraf MY, Awan AR, Mahmood K (2012) Rehabilitation of saline ecosystems through cultivation of salt tolerant plants. Pak J Bot 44:69–75Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Doronila AI, Forster MA (2015) Performance measurement via sap flow monitoring of three Eucalyptus species for mine site and dryland salinity phytoremediation. Int J Phytoremediation 17:101–108. Scholar
  212. 212.
    Shannon MC, Banuelos GS, Draper JH, Ajwa H, Jordahl J, Licht L (1999) Tolerance of hybrid poplar (Populus) trees irrigated with varied levels of salt, selenium, and boron. Int J Phytoremediation 1:273–288. Scholar
  213. 213.
    Major JE, Mosseler A, Malcolm JW, Heartz S (2017) Salinity tolerance of three Salix species: survival, biomass yield and allocation, and biochemical efficiencies. Biomass Bioenergy 105:10–22. Scholar
  214. 214.
    Major JE, Mosseler A, Malcolm JW (2017) Salix species variation in leaf gas exchange, sodium, and nutrient parameters at three levels of salinity. Can J For Res 47:1045–1055. Scholar
  215. 215.
    Chen SL, Li JK, Wang SS, Fritz E, Huttermann A, Altman A (2003) Effects of NaCl on shoot growth, transpiration, ion compartmentation, and transport in regenerated plants of Populus euphratica and Populus tomentosa. Can J For Res 33:967–975. Scholar
  216. 216.
    Chen SL, Lia JK, Fritz E, Wang SS, Huttermann A (2002) Sodium and chloride distribution in roots and transport in three poplar genotypes under increasing NaCl stress. For Ecol Manag 168:217–230. Scholar
  217. 217.
    Mirck J, Volk TA (2010) Response of three shrub willow varieties (Salix spp.) to storm water treatments with different concentrations of salts. Bioresour Technol 101:3484–3492. Scholar
  218. 218.
    Stephens W, Tyrrel SF, Tiberghien JE (2000) Irrigating short rotation coppice with landfill leachate: constraints to productivity due to chloride. Bioresour Technol 75:227–229. Scholar
  219. 219.
    Dangi SR, Banuelos G, Buyer JS, Hanson B, Gerik J (2018) Microbial community biomass and structure in saline and non-saline soils associated with salt- and boron-tolerant poplar clones grown for the phytoremediation of selenium. Int J Phytoremediation 20:129. Scholar
  220. 220.
    Nawaz MF, Gul S, Tanvir MA, Akhtar J, Chaudary S, Ahmad I (2016) Influence of NaCl-salinity on Pb-uptake behavior and growth of River Red gum tree (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.). Turk J Agric For 40:425–432. Scholar
  221. 221.
    Seenivasan R, Prasath V, Mohanraj R (2015) Restoration of sodic soils involving chemical and biological amendments and phytoremediation by Eucalyptus camaldulensis in a semiarid region. Environ Geochem Health 37:575–586. Scholar
  222. 222.
    Nasim G (2010) The role of arbuscualr mycorrhizae in inducing resistance to drought and salinity stress in crops. In: Ashraf N, Ozturk M, NSA A (eds) Plant adaptation and phytoremediation. Phytoremediation, pp 119–141. Scholar
  223. 223.
    Imada S, Yamanaka N, Tamai S (2009) Effects of salinity on the growth, Na partitioning, and Na dynamics of a salt tolerant tree, Populus alba L. J Arid Environ 73:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Zhang LZ, Fan JJ, Meng QX, Niu Y, Niu W (2013) Caragana Fabr. promotes revegetation and soil rehabilitation in saline-alkali wasteland. Int J Phytoremediation 15:38–50. Scholar
  225. 225.
    Silva YJAB, Silva YJAB, Freire MBGS, Lopes EAPL, Santos MA (2016) Atriplex nummularia Lindl. as alternative for improving salt-affected soils conditions in semiarid environments: a field experiment. Chilean JAR 76:343–348. Scholar
  226. 226.
    Lister NME, Beier P (2012) Design approaches to ecological restoration. Ecol Restor 30:263. Scholar
  227. 227.
    Handel SN (2013) Ecological restoration foundations to designing habitats in urban areas. In: Beardsley J (ed) Designing wildlife habitats. Garden and Landscape Studies, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 169–186Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Costantini EAC, Branquinho C, Nunes A, Schwilch G, Stavi I, Valdecantos A, Zucca C (2016) Soil indicators to assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in dryland ecosystems. Solid Earth 7:397–414. Scholar
  229. 229.
    Stefanes M, Ochoa Quintero JM, de Oliveira Roque F, Moreira Sugai LS, Reverberi Tambosi L, Lourival R, Laurance S (2016) Incorporating resilience and cost in ecological restoration strategies at landscape scale. Ecol Soc 21(4):54. Scholar
  230. 230.
    Masarovičová E, Májeková M, Vykouková I (2016) Functional traits and plasticity of the plants. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of photosynthesis, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, pp 487–505, ISBN 978-1-4822-3073-4Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Masarovičová E, Májeková M, Vykouková I (2015) Functional traits and plasticity of the plants (in Slovak), 1st edn. Publishing House of the Comenius University, Bratislava, p 84, ISBN 978-80-223-4033-5Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Eliáš P (2007) Biodiversity—conception and its application (in Slovak). Život Prostr 41:5–12Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Soil ScienceComenius University in BratislavaBratislavaSlovak Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of ChemistryComenius University in BratislavaBratislavaSlovak Republic

Personalised recommendations