Solving the Open-Path Asymmetric Green Traveling Salesman Problem in a Realistic Urban Environment

  • Eneko OsabaEmail author
  • Javier Del Ser
  • Andres Iglesias
  • Miren Nekane Bilbao
  • Iztok FisterJr.
  • Iztok Fister
  • Akemi Galvez
Conference paper
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 798)


In this paper, a driving route planning system for multi-point routes is designed and developed. The routing problem has modeled as an Open-Path and Asymmetric Green Traveling Salesman Problem (OAG-TSP). The main objective of the proposed OAG-TSP is to find a route between a fixed origin and destination, visiting a group of intermediate points exactly once, minimizing the \(CO_2\) emitted by the car and the total distance traveled. Thus, the developed transportation problem is a complex and multi-attribute variant of the well-known TSP. For its efficient solving, three classic meta-heuristics have been used: Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search and Variable Neighborhood Search. These approaches have been chosen for its easy adaptation and rapid execution times, something appreciated in this kind of real-world systems. The system developed has been built in a realistic simulation environment, using the open source framework Open Trip Planner. Additionally, three heterogeneous scenarios have been studied in three different cities of the Basque Country (Spain): Bilbao, Gazteiz and Donostia. Obtained results conclude that the most promising technique for solving this problem is the Simulated Annealing. The statistical significance of these findings is confirmed by the results of a Friedman’s non-parametric test.


Route planning Traveling Salesman Problem Emission reduction Simulated Annealing Tabu Search Variable Neighborhood Search 



E. Osaba and J. Del Ser would like to thank the Basque Government for its funding support through the EMAITEK program.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eneko Osaba
    • 1
    Email author
  • Javier Del Ser
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Andres Iglesias
    • 4
    • 5
  • Miren Nekane Bilbao
    • 2
  • Iztok FisterJr.
    • 6
  • Iztok Fister
    • 6
  • Akemi Galvez
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.TECNALIA Research & InnovationDerioSpain
  2. 2.University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)BilbaoSpain
  3. 3.Basque Center for Applied Mathematics (BCAM)BilbaoSpain
  4. 4.Universidad de CantabriaSantanderSpain
  5. 5.Toho UniversityFunabashiJapan
  6. 6.University of MariborMariborSlovenia

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