Electrochemical Methods to Characterize Nanomaterial-Based Transducers for the Development of Noninvasive Glucose Sensors

  • Nur Alya Batrisya Ismail
  • Firdaus Abd-Wahab
  • Nurul Izzati Ramli
  • Mamoun M. Bader
  • Wan Wardatul Amani Wan SalimEmail author


Electrochemical biosensors consist of electrodes modified with nanomaterials that contain immobilized biomolecules for analyte recognition and utilize electrochemical transduction; a glucose meter is an example of such a biosensor. Innovation in glucose monitoring includes non-invasive sensing, where alternative body fluids such as saliva can be used in place of blood, eliminating finger-pricking. However, the concentration of glucose in saliva is twofold lower than in blood, demanding a more sensitive transducer. For a decade, research focused on enhancing the transduction layer by modifying electrodes with nanomaterials that can increase electron transfer, enabling detection of glucose at much lower concentrations. The contribution of these nanomaterials towards enhancement of electron transfer can be understood via electrochemical characterization techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This chapter provides the basis of the voltammetry techniques and EIS with example graphs from our current research. The aforementioned techniques were performed on screen-printed glassy carbon electrodes modified with reduced graphene–conductive polymer composites, with voltammetry measurements providing CV and LSV and EIS measurements, with EIS resulting in Bode and Nyquist plots and Randles equivalent circuit. Results from our study show a reversible electrode reaction that is diffusion controlled.


  1. Abraham S, Srivastava S, Kumar V et al (2015) Enhanced electrochemical biosensing efficiency of silica particles supported on partially reduced graphene oxide for sensitive detection of cholesterol. J Electroanal Chem 757:65–72. Scholar
  2. Arduini F, Micheli L, Moscone D et al (2016) Electrochemical biosensors based on nanomodified screen-printed electrodes: recent applications in clinical analysis. Trends Anal Chem 15:1–33. Scholar
  3. Aydin S (2007) A comparison of ghrelin, glucose, alpha-amylase and protein levels in saliva from diabetics. J Biochem Mol Biol 40:29–35. Scholar
  4. Bard AJ, Faulkner LR (2001) Electrochemical methods fundamentals and applications, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Brownson DAC, Banks CE (2014) Interpreting electrochemistry. In: The handbook of graphene electrochemistry. Springer, London, pp 23–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruen D, Delaney C, Florea L, Diamond D (2017) Glucose sensing for diabetes monitoring: recent developments. Sensors (Basel) 17:1–21. Scholar
  7. Carda C, Mosquera-Lloreda N, Salom L et al (2006) Structural and functional salivary disorders in type 2 diabetic patients. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 11:309–314Google Scholar
  8. Chambers JP, Arulanandam BP, Matta LL et al (2002) Biosensor recognition elements. Curr Issues Mol Biol 10:1–12Google Scholar
  9. Clarke SF, Foster JR (2012) A history of blood glucose meters and their role in self-monitoring of diabetes mellitus. Br J Biomed Sci 69:83–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Elgrishi N, Rountree KJ, McCarthy BD et al (2018) A practical beginner’s guide to cyclic voltammetry. J Chem Educ 95:197–206. Scholar
  11. Fernández-Sánchez C, McNeil CJ, Rawson K (2005) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies of polymer degradation: application to biosensor development. Trends Anal Chem 24:37–48. Scholar
  12. Gupta S, Sandhu SV, Bansal H, Sharma D (2015) Comparison of salivary and serum glucose levels in diabetic patients. J Diabetes Sci Technol 9:91–96. Scholar
  13. Huang J, Liu Y, Hou H, You T (2008) Simultaneous electrochemical determination of dopamine, uric acid and ascorbic acid using palladium nanoparticle-loaded carbon nanofibers modified electrode. Biosens Bioelectron 24:632–637. Scholar
  14. Kesik M (2014) A functional immobilization matrix based on a conducting polymer modified with PMM/Clay nanocomposites and gold nanoparticles: applications to amperometric glucose biosensors. Middle East Technical University, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee J, Kim J, Kim S, Min D-H (2016) Biosensors based on graphene oxide and its biomedical application. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 105:1–13. Scholar
  16. Liang W, Zhuobin Y (2003) Direct Electrochemistry of glucose oxidase at a gold electrode modified with single-wall carbon nanotubes. Sensors 3:544–554. Scholar
  17. Lin T (2017) Non-invasive glucose monitoring: a review of challenges and recent advances. Curr Trends Biomed Eng Biosci 6:1–8. Scholar
  18. Mani V, Devadas B, Chen SM (2013) Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase at electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid material modified electrode for glucose biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron 41:309–315. Scholar
  19. Mirkin MV (2007) Determination of electrode kinetics. In: Zoski CG (ed) Handbook of electrochemistry, 1st edn. Elsevier B.V, Oxford, pp 639–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mongra AC (2012) Commercial biosensors: an outlook. J Acad Ind Res 1:310–312Google Scholar
  21. Nirala NR, Abraham S, Kumar V et al (2015) Partially reduced graphene oxide-gold nanorods composite based bioelectrode of improved sensing performance. Talanta 144:745–754. Scholar
  22. Orazem ME, Tribollet B (2008) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Orazem ME, Pébère N, Tribollet B (2006) Enhanced graphical representation of electrochemical impedance data. J Electrochem Soc 153:B129. Scholar
  24. Park CS, Lee C, Kwon OS (2016) Conducting polymer based nanobiosensors. Polymers (Basel) 8:1–18. Scholar
  25. Parker VD (1986) Linear sweep and cyclic voltammetry. In: Bamford CH, Tipper CFH, Compton RG (eds) Comprehensive chemical kinetics. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 145–202Google Scholar
  26. Pingarrón JM, Yáñez-Sedeño P, González-Cortés A (2008) Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors. Electrochim Acta 53:5848–5866. Scholar
  27. Randviir EP, Banks CE (2013) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: an overview of bioanalytical applications. Anal Methods 5:1098. Scholar
  28. Santhosh P, Manesh KM, Uthayakumar S et al (2009) Fabrication of enzymatic glucose biosensor based on palladium nanoparticles dispersed onto poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers. Bioelectrochemistry 75:61–66. Scholar
  29. Satish BNVS, Srikala P, Maharudrappa B et al (2014) Saliva: a tool in assessing glucose levels in diabetes mellitus. J Int Oral Health 6:114–117PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Sener A, Jurysta C, Bulur N et al (2009) Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects. J Biomed Biotechnol 2009:2018. Scholar
  31. Shi J, Claussen JC, McLamore ES et al (2011) A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors. Nanotechnology 22:1–10. Scholar
  32. Thevenot D, Toth K, Durst R, Wilson G (1999) Electrochemical biosensors: recommended definitions and classification. Pure Appl Chem 71:2333–2348. Scholar
  33. Vasconcelos ACU, Soares MSM, Almeida PC, Soares TC (2010) Comparative study of the concentration of salivary and blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients. J Oral Sci 52:293–298. Scholar
  34. Vashist SK (2012) Non-invasive glucose monitoring technology in diabetes management: a review. Anal Chim Acta 750:16–27. Scholar
  35. Wang J (2006) Analytical electrochemistry, 3rd edn. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wisitsoraat A, Pakapongpan S, Sriprachuabwong C et al (2013) Graphene-PEDOT:PSS on screen printed carbon electrode for enzymatic biosensing. J Electroanal Chem 704:208–213. Scholar
  37. Zhang W, Du Y, Wang ML (2015) Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor. Sens Biosens Res 4:23–29. Scholar
  38. Zhao F, Wang F, Zhao W et al (2011) Voltammetric sensor for caffeine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and graphene oxide. Microchim Acta 174:383–390. Scholar
  39. Zhu X, Xu J, Duan X et al (2015) Controlled synthesis of partially reduced graphene oxide: enhance electrochemical determination of isoniazid with high sensitivity and stability. J Electroanal Chem 757:183–191. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nur Alya Batrisya Ismail
    • 1
  • Firdaus Abd-Wahab
    • 1
  • Nurul Izzati Ramli
    • 1
  • Mamoun M. Bader
    • 2
  • Wan Wardatul Amani Wan Salim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringInternational Islamic University MalaysiaSelangorMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, College of Science and General StudiesAlfaisal UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations