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Electrochemical Methods to Characterize Nanomaterial-Based Transducers for the Development of Noninvasive Glucose Sensors

  • Nur Alya Batrisya Ismail
  • Firdaus Abd-Wahab
  • Nurul Izzati Ramli
  • Mamoun M. Bader
  • Wan Wardatul Amani Wan SalimEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Electrochemical biosensors consist of electrodes modified with nanomaterials that contain immobilized biomolecules for analyte recognition and utilize electrochemical transduction; a glucose meter is an example of such a biosensor. Innovation in glucose monitoring includes non-invasive sensing, where alternative body fluids such as saliva can be used in place of blood, eliminating finger-pricking. However, the concentration of glucose in saliva is twofold lower than in blood, demanding a more sensitive transducer. For a decade, research focused on enhancing the transduction layer by modifying electrodes with nanomaterials that can increase electron transfer, enabling detection of glucose at much lower concentrations. The contribution of these nanomaterials towards enhancement of electron transfer can be understood via electrochemical characterization techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This chapter provides the basis of the voltammetry techniques and EIS with example graphs from our current research. The aforementioned techniques were performed on screen-printed glassy carbon electrodes modified with reduced graphene–conductive polymer composites, with voltammetry measurements providing CV and LSV and EIS measurements, with EIS resulting in Bode and Nyquist plots and Randles equivalent circuit. Results from our study show a reversible electrode reaction that is diffusion controlled.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nur Alya Batrisya Ismail
    • 1
  • Firdaus Abd-Wahab
    • 1
  • Nurul Izzati Ramli
    • 1
  • Mamoun M. Bader
    • 2
  • Wan Wardatul Amani Wan Salim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringInternational Islamic University MalaysiaSelangorMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, College of Science and General StudiesAlfaisal UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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