Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine Application: Lipid-Based Nanoparticles and Their Safety Concerns
The ability to control particle size and shape in engineering materials, paved the way for introducing nanostructures with unique properties and broad applications. The small size of nanostructures gives rise to more toxic reactions due to a higher surface area relative to volume and this in turn changes absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of nanoparticles (NPs). This also enhances cellular uptake and thus increases the interference with the biological milieu due to large surface area and surface functionalization. Notably, NPs are either degradable nanoparticles such as dendrimers, which can produce unexpected toxic byproducts, or non-degradable ones such as metallic NPs that accumulate in tissues and cells and consequently lead to pernicious effects. The uniqueness of each type of organic and inorganic NPs in addition to the route of administration make their behavior in biological systems more complicated than expected, thus, in vivo and in vitro studies are strongly recommended.
The authors are thankful to the Ministry of Education (MOE) Malaysia for funding this work under Transdisciplinary Research Grant Scheme (TRGS) grant no. 6769003 and Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) for USM-Short Term Research Grant (304/CIPPT/6315073).
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