Advertisement

Drug-Drug and Food-Drug Interactions of Pharmacokinetic Nature

  • Pietro Fagiolino
  • Marta Vázquez
  • Manuel Ibarra
  • Cecilia Maldonado
  • Rosa Eiraldi
Chapter

Abstract

The most relevant pharmacokinetic mechanisms of drug-drug (DD) and food-drug (FD) interactions are summarized from a perspective that will allow the readers to apply the concepts exposed here to other cases referred in the literature or coming from their own clinical experience. The aim of studying DD and FD interactions is to prevent, or to manage, eventual adverse events that can appear during drug treatments. Pharmacological activity depends on adequate drug levels at the action site, but access to these sites for pharmacokinetic sampling is often limited. Thus, we often rely on plasma concentrations as surrogates in efforts to understand exposure-response relationships. However, pharmacokinetic interactions may be hidden or imperceptible. Sometimes, drug concentration in plasma remains unaltered, but it could have changed at the action sites. The new paradigm should now be that the concentration of either the drug, or its metabolite, or any endogenous molecule at the action sites, is always responsible for the clinical effect. Then, pharmacokinetic interaction should be dealt with a wider perspective, not just focusing the research on the administered substance but on the entire environment conditioning the action.

Keywords

Plasma protein binding Membrane transporter and enzyme Inducers and inhibitors Environmental pH Sex-related gastrointestinal differences Food effect on bioavailability and bioequivalence 

References

  1. Aguado JM, Torre-Cisneros J, Fortún J et al (2009) Tuberculosis in solid-organ transplant recipients: consensus statement of the group for the study of infection in transplant recipients (GESITRA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Clin Infect Dis 48:1276–1284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhlaghi F, Trull AK (2002) Distribution of cyclosporin in organ transplant recipients. Clin Pharmacokinet 41:615–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvariza S, Ibarra M, Vázquez M et al (2014) Different oral phenytoin administration regimens could modify its chronic exposure and its saliva/plasma concentration ratio. J Med Pharm Innov 1:35–43Google Scholar
  4. Amidon G, Lennernäs H, Shah V et al (1995) A theoretical basis for a biopharmaceutic drug classification: the correlation of in vitro drug product dissolution and in vivo bioavailability. Pharm Res 12:413–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amundsen R, Åsberg A, Ohm IK et al (2012) Cyclosporine A- and tacrolimus-mediated inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 40:655–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asberg A (2003) Interactions between cyclosporin and lipid-lowering drugs: implications for organ transplant recipients. Drugs 63:367–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beckett AH, Rowland M (1965) Urinary excretion kinetics of methylamphetamine in man. J Pharm Pharmacol 17:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertz R, Hsu A, Lam W et al (2000) Pharmacokinetic interactions between Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir or ABT-378/r) and other non-HIV drugs. Fifth international congress on drug therapy in HIV infection. Abstract P291, Poster 438. Glasgow (UK), 22–26 Oct 2000Google Scholar
  9. Boffito M, Dickinson L, Hill A et al (2004) Steady-state pharmacokinetics of saquinavir hard-gel/ritonavir/fosamprenavir in HIV-1-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37:1376–1384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowdle TA, Levy RH, Cutler RE (1979) Effect of carbamazepine on valproic acid clearance in normal man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 26:629–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Budha NR, Frymoyer A, Smelick GS et al (2012) Drug absorption interactions between oral targeted anticancer agents and PPIs: is pH-dependent solubility the Achilles heel of targeted therapy? Clin Pharmacol Ther 92:203–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burger DM, Hugen PW, Kroon FP et al (1998) Pharmacokinetic interaction between the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir. AIDS 12:2080–2082Google Scholar
  13. Canafax DM, Graves NM, Hilligoss DM et al (1991) Interaction between cyclosporine and fluconazole in renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 51:1014–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carr RB, Shrewsbury K (2007) Hyperammonemia due to valproic acid in the psychiatric setting. Am J Psychiatry 164:1020–1027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Food and Drug Administration (2002) Guidance for industry. Food-effect bioavailability and fed bioequivalence studies. http://www.fda.gov/cder/guidance/index.htm
  16. Chen J, Raymond K (2006) Roles of rifampicin in drug-drug interactions: underlying molecular mechanisms involving the nuclear pregnane X receptor. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 5:3PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen K, Meintjes G (2010) Management of individuals requiring ART and TB treatment. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 5:61–69PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corley DA (2009) Proton pump inhibitor, H2 antagonists, and risk of hip fracture: a large population-based study [abstract]. Gastroenterology 136:A70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Custodio JM, Wu CY, Benet LZ (2008) Predicting drug disposition, absorption / elimination / transporter interplay and the role of food on drug absorption. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 60:717–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daneshmend TK (1982) Ketoconazole-cyclosporin interaction. Lancet 2:1342–1343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Datz F, Christian P, Moore J (1987) Gender-related differences in gastric emptying. J Nucl Med 28:1204–1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Doig MV, Clare RA (1991) Use of thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to aid in the identification of urinary metabolites of a novel antiepileptic drug, lamotrigine. J Chromatogr 554:181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eiraldi R (1997) Interactions on digoxin. Dissertation for doctor in chemistry thesis, Universidad de la República (Uruguay)Google Scholar
  24. Eiraldi R, Sánchez S, Olano I et al (2004) Study of drug interactions of Cyclosporine A in two renal transplant patients. Revista O.F.I.L. 14:13–23Google Scholar
  25. European Medicines Agency (EMA) (2012) Guideline on the investigation of drug interactions. CPMP/EWP/560/95/Rev. 1 Corr. 2**Google Scholar
  26. Eytan GD, Regev R, Oren G et al (1996) The role of passive transbilayer drug movement in multidrug resistance and its modulation. J Biol Chem 271:12897–12902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fagiolino P (2004) Multiplicative dependence of the first order rate constant and its impact on clinical pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 29:43–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fagiolino P, Vázquez M, Eiraldi R et al (2011) Efflux transporter influence on drug metabolism: theoretical approach for bioavailability and clearance prediction. Clin Pharmacokinet 50:75–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fagiolino P, Vázquez M, Alvariza S et al (2014) Antiepileptic drugs: energy-consuming processes governing drug disposition. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) E6:387–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fan-Havard P, Liu Z, Chou M et al (2013) Pharmacokinetics of phase I nevirapine metabolites following a single dose and at steady state. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:2154–2160PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Faught E, Morris G, Jacobson M et al (1999) Adding lamotrigine to valproate: incidence of rash and other adverse effects. Epilepsia 40:1135–1140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fang AF, Damle BD, LaBadie RR et al (2008) Significant decrease in nelfinavir systemic exposure after omeprazole coadministration in healthy subjects. Pharmacotherapy 28:42–50Google Scholar
  33. Ferguson RM, Sutherland DE, Simmons RL et al (1982) Ketoconazole, cyclosporin metabolism, and renal transplantation. Lancet 2:882–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferte J (2000) Analysis of the tangled relationships between P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and the lipid phase of the cell membrane. Eur J Biochem 267:277–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fitton A, Goa KL (1995) Lamotrigine. An update of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in epilepsy. Drugs 50:691–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Food and Drug Administration (2013) FDA [7-26-2013]. Available on https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm362415.htm
  37. Freeman DJ (1991) Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine. Clin Biochem 24:9–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fricker G, Drewe J, Huwyler J et al (1996) Relevance of p-glycoprotein for the enteral absorption of cyclosporin A: in vitro–in vivo correlation. Br J Pharmacol 118:1841–1847PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Funakoshi S, Murakami T, Yumoto R et al (2005) Role of organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 in pharmacokinetics of digoxin and beta-methyldigoxin in rats. J Pharm Sci 94:1196–1203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ghodke-Puranik Y, Thorn CF, Lamba JK et al (2013) Valproic acid pathway: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenet Genomics 23:236–241PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Greiner B, Eichelbaum M, Fritz P et al (1999) The role of intestinal P-glycoprotein in the interaction of digoxin and rifampin. J Clin Invest 104:147–153PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gugler R, von Unruh GE (1980) Clinical pharmacokinetics of valproic acid. Clin Pharmacokinet 5:67–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hamer JHM, Knake S, Schomburg U et al (2000) Valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy in the presence of topiramate. Neurology 54:230–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hirsh J, Fuster V, Ansell J et al (2003) American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation guide to warfarin therapy. Circulation 107(12):1692–1711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hosagrahara V, Reddy J, Ganguly S et al (2013) Effect of repeated dosing on rifampin exposure in BALB/c mice. Eur J Pharm Sci 49:33–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ibarra M, Fagiolino P, Vázquez M et al (2012) Impact of food administration on lopinavir-ritonavir bioequivalence studies. Eur J Pharm Sci 46:516–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ibarra M, Vázquez M, Fagiolino P (2014) Population pharmacokinetic model to analyze nevirapine multiple-peaks after a single oral dose. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 41:363–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ibarra M, Magallanes L, Lorier M et al (2016) Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets. Eur J Pharm Sci 85:106–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ibarra M, Vázquez M, Fagiolino P (2017) Sex effect on average bioequivalence. Clin Ther 39:23–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ito T, Jensen RT (2010) Association of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy with bone fractures and effects on absorption of calcium, vitamin B12, iron, and magnesium. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 12:448–457PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jawhari D, Alswisi M, Ghannam M et al (2014) Bioequivalence of a new generic formulation of erlotinib hydrochloride 150 mg tablets versus tarceva in healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. J Bioequiv Availab 6:119–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jensen RT (2006) Consequences of long-term proton pump blockade: highlighting insights from studies of patients with gastrinomas. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 98:4–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnson MD, Hamilton CD, Drew RH et al (2003) A randomized comparative study to determine the effect of omeprazole on the peak serum concentration of itraconazole oral solution. J Antimicrob Chemother 51:453–457PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Keam SJ (2008) Dasatinib: in chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. BioDrugs 22:59–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kenyon CJ, Hooper G, Tierney D et al (1995) The effect of food on the gastrointestinal transit and systemic absorption of naproxen from a novel sustained release formulation. J Control Release 34:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kerr BM, Rettie AE, Eddy AC et al (1989) Inhibition of human liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase by valproate and valpromide: in vitro/in vivo correlation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 46:82–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kim RB, Fromm MF, Wandel C et al (1998) The drug transporter P-glycoprotein limits oral absorption and brain entry of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Clin Invest 101:289–294PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kodawara T, Masuda S, Wakasugi H et al (2002) Organic anion transporter oatp2-mediated interaction between digoxin and amiodarone in the rat liver. Pharm Res 19:738–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Koop H, Bachem MG (1992) Serum iron, ferritin, and vitamin B12 during prolonged omeprazole therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol 14:288–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. La Porte CJ, Colbers EP, Bertz R et al (2004) Pharmacokinetics of adjusted-dose lopinavir-ritonavir combined with rifampin in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1553–1560PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lalic M, Cvejic J, Popovic J et al (2009) Lamotrigine and valproate pharmacokinetics interactions in epileptic patients. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 34:93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lambert C, Lamontagne D, Hottlet H et al (1989) Amiodarone-digoxin interaction in rats. A reduction in hepatic uptake. Drug Metab Dispos 17:704–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Leather H, Boyette RM, Tian L et al (2006) Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the drug interaction between intravenous itraconazole and intravenous tacrolimus or intravenous cyclosporin A in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 12:325–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lennard-Jones JE, Fletcher J, Shaw DG (1968) Effect of different foods on the acidity of the gastric contents in patients with duodenal ulcer. Part III: effect of altering the proportions of protein and carbohydrate. Gut 9:177–182PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lheureux PER, Penaloza A, Zahir S et al (2005) Science review: carnitine in the treatment of valproic acid-induced toxicity—what is the evidence? Crit Care 9:431–440PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Loscher W (1999) Valproate: a reappraisal of its pharmacodynamic properties and mechanisms of action. Prog Neurobiol 58:31–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lown KS, Mayo RR, Leichtman AB et al (1997) Role of intestinal P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in interpatient variation in the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 62:248–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lu W, Uetrecht JP (2007) Possible bioactivation pathways of lamotrigine. Drug Metab Dispos 35:1050–1056PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Magallanes L, Lorier M, Ibarra M et al (2016) Sex and food influence on intestinal absorption of ketoprofen gastroresistant formulation. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 5:196–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Maggs JL, Naisbitt DJ, Tettey JNA et al (2000) Metabolism of lamotrigine to a reactive arene oxide intermediate. Chem Res Toxicol 13:1075–1081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mahatthanatrakul W, Nontaput T, Ridtitid W et al (2007) Rifampin, a cytochrome P450 3A inducer, decreases plasma concentrations of antipsychotic risperidone in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharm Ther 32:161–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Malaty LI, Kuper JJ (1999) Drug interactions of HIV protease inhibitors. Drug Saf 20:147–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maldonado C, Fagiolino P, Vázquez M et al (2011) Time-dependent and concentration-dependent upregulation of carbamazepine efflux transporter. A preliminary assessment from salivary drug monitoring. Lat Am J Pharm 30:908–912Google Scholar
  74. Maldonado C, de Mello N, Fagiolino P et al (2015) Safe use of a daily 20-mg dose of omeprazole in order to avoid hypomagnesemia. Int J Pharm 5:315–321Google Scholar
  75. Maldonado C, Guevara N, Queijo C et al (2016) Carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine deficiency as a cause of higher levels of ammonia. Biomed Res 2016:2920108Google Scholar
  76. Maldonado C, Guevara N, Silveira A et al (2017) L-Carnitine supplementation to reverse hyperammonemia in a patient undergoing chronic valproic acid treatment: a case report. J Int Med Res 45:1268–1272PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mehndiratta MM, Mehndiratta P, Phul P et al (2008) Valproate induced non hepatic hyperammonaemic encephalopathy (VNHE)-a study from tertiary care referral university hospital, North India. J Pak Med Assoc 58:627–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Melander A (1978) Influence of food on the bioavailability of drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet 3:337–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Michalek W, Semler JR, Kuo B (2011) Impact of acid suppression on upper gastrointestinal pH and motility. Dig Dis Sci 56:1735–1742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Miret S, Simpson RJ, McKie AT (2003) Physiology and molecular biology of dietary iron absorption. Annu Rev Nutr 23:283–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mizunashi K, Furukawa Y, Katano K et al (1993) Effect of omeprazole, an inhibitor of H+, K(+)-ATPase, on bone resorption in humans. Calcif Tissue Int 53:21–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Moayyedi P, Cranney A (2008) Hip fracture and proton pump inhibitor therapy: balancing the evidence for benefit and harm. Am J Gastroenterol 103:2428–2431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mueller EA, Kovarik JM, van Bree JB et al (1994) Influence of a fat-rich meal on the pharmacokinetics of a new oral formulation of cyclosporine in a crossover comparison with the market formulation. Pharm Res 11:151–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mugabo P, Els I, Smith J et al (2011) Nevirapine plasma concentrations in premature infants exposed to single-dose nevirapine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. S Afr Med J 101:655–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Myers Davit B, Conner D (2008) Food effects on drug bioavailability: implications for new and generic drug development. In: Krishna R, Yu L (eds) Biopharmaceutics applications in drug development, vol 21. Springer US, Boston, pp 317–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Naisbitt DJ (2004) Drug hypersensitivity reactions in skin: understanding mechanisms and the development of diagnostic and predictive tests. Toxicology 194:179–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Naylor H, Robichaud J (2013) Decreased tacrolimus levels after administration of rifampin to a patient with renal transplant. Can J Hosp Pharm 66:388–392PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Nijland HM, L’Homme RF, Rongen GA et al (2008) High incidence of adverse events in healthy volunteers receiving rifampicin and adjusted doses of lopinavir/ritonavir tablets. AIDS 22:931–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Osowski CL, Dix SP, Lin LS et al (1996) Evaluation of the drug interaction between intravenous high-dose fluconazole and cyclosporine or tacrolimus in bone marrow transplant patients. Transplantation 61:1268–1272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Palleria C, Di Paolo A, Giofrè C et al (2013) Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and their implication in clinical management. J Res Med Sci 18:601–610PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Perazella MA (2013) Proton pump inhibitors and hypomagnesemia: a rare but serious complication. Kidney Int 83:553–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ramachandran G, Hemanth Kumar AK, Rajasekaran S et al (2009) CYP2B6 G516T polymorphism but not rifampin coadministration influences steady-state pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in South India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:863–868PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ramanathan S, Mathias AA, German P et al (2011) Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of the HIV integrase inhibitor elvitegravir. Clin Pharmacokinet 50:229–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Reece PA, Kotasek D, Morris RG et al (1986) The effect of food on oral melphalan absorption. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 16:194–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Riska P, Lamson M, MacGregor T et al (1999) Disposition and biotransformation of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 27:895–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Romero AJ, Le Pogamp P, Nilsson LG et al (2002) Effect of voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in renal transplant patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 71:226–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Roth M, Obaidat A, Hagenbuch B (2012) OATPs, OATs and OCTs: the organic anion and cation transporters of the SLCO and SLC22A gene superfamilies. Br J Pharmacol 165:1260–1287PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Roux C, Briot K, Gossec L et al (2009) Increase in vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women using omeprazole. Calcif Tissue Int 84:13–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Saeki T, Ueda K, Tanigawara Y et al (1993) Human P-glycoprotein transports cyclosporin A and FK506. J Biol Chem 268:6077–6080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Schachter M (2004) Chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of statins: an update. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 19:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schlienger RG, Knowles SR, Shear NH (1998) Lamotrigine-associated anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. Neurology 51:1172–1175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schmidt LE, Dalhoff K (2002) Food-drug interactions. Drugs 62:1481–1502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sharma VR, Brannon MA, Carloss EA (2004) Effect of omeprazole on oral iron replacement in patients with iron deficiency anemia. South Med J 97:887–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sibl A, Hrudikova-Vyskocilova E, Kacirova I et al (2017) Pharmacokinetic interaction between digoxin and amiodarone. Clin Ther 39:e82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Siemes H, Nau H, Schultze K et al (1993) Valproate (VPA) metabolites in various clinical conditions of probable VPA-associated hepatotoxicity. Epilepsia 34:332–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Singh BN (1999) Effects of food on clinical pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacokinet 37:213–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Steinberg M (2007) Dasatinib: a tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic. Clin Ther 29:2289–2308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Stewart CA, Termanini B, Sutliff VE et al (1998) Iron absorption in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome treated with long-term gastric acid antisecretory therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 12:83–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sutton SC, Nause R, Gandelman K (2017) The impact of gastric pH, volume, and emptying on the food effect of ziprasidone oral absorption. AAPS J 19:1084–1090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Takada T, Yamanashi Y, Konishi K et al (2015) NPC1L1 is a key regulator of intestinal vitamin K absorption and a modulator of warfarin therapy. Sci Transl Med 7:275ra23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Usach I, Melis V, Peris JE (2013) Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a review on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability. J Int AIDS Soc 16:1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Valk-Swinkels CG, Alidjan F, Rommers MK et al (2013) Low cyclosporin levels induced by the brief use of rifampicin; immunosuppression may fail for several weeks. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 157:A5667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Vázquez M, Fagiolino P, Mariño EL (2013) Concentration-dependent mechanisms of adverse drug reactions in epilepsy. Curr Pharm Des 19:6802–6808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vázquez M, Fagiolino P, Maldonado C et al (2014) Hyperammonemia associated with valproic acid concentrations. Biomed Res Int 2014:217–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vestergaard P, Rejnmark L, Mosekilde L (2006) Proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2 receptor antagonists, and other antacid medications and the risk of fracture. Calcif Tissue Int 79:76–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vourvahis M, Kashuba AD (2007) Mechanisms of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions associated with ritonavir-enhanced tipranavir. Pharmacotherapy 27:888–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wang E, Lew K, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW (2002) Interaction of common azole antifungals with P glycoprotein. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:160–165PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Warner NJ, Barnard JT, Bigger JT (1985) Tissue digoxin concentrations and digoxin effect during the quinidine-digoxin interaction. J Am Coll Cardiol 5:680–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wessler JD, Grip LT, Mendell J et al (2013) The P-glycoprotein transport system and cardiovascular drugs. J Am Coll Cardiol 61:2495–2502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Williams L, Davis JA, Lowenthal DT (1993) The influence of food on the absorption and metabolism of drugs. Med Clin North Am 77:815–829PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. World Health Organization (2012) WHO policy on collaborative TB/HIV activities – guidelines for national programmes and other stakeholders. ISBN: 9789241503006Google Scholar
  122. Wright MJ, Sullivan RR, Gaffney-Stomberg E et al (2010) Inhibiting gastric acid production does not affect intestinal calcium absorption in young healthy individuals: a randomized, crossover controlled clinical trial. J Bone Miner Res 25:2205–2211PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wu CY, Benet LZ (2005) Predicting drug disposition via application of BCS: transport/absorption/elimination interplay and development of a biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system. Pharm Res 22:11–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wu KL, Chaikomin R, Doran S et al (2006) Artificially sweetened versus regular mixers increase gastric emptying and alcohol absorption. Am J Med 119:802–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Xue L, Holford N, Ding X-L et al (2017) Theory-based pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of S- and R-warfarin and effects on international normalized ratio: influence of body size, composition and genotype in cardiac surgery patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 83:823–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Yamashita F, Sasa Y, Yoshida S et al (2013) Modeling of rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 activation dynamics for the prediction of clinical drug-drug interactions from in vitro. PLoS One 8:e70330PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Yang KM, Shin IC, Park JW et al (2017) Nanoparticulation improves bioavailability of Erlotinib. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 43:1557–1565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Yang YX, Lewis JD, Epstein S et al (2006) Long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy and risk of hip fracture. J Am Med Assoc 296:2947–2953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yuen AWC, Land G, Weatherley BC et al (1992) Sodium valproate acutely inhibits lamotrigine metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol 33:511–513PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zielinski JJ, Haidukewych D (1987) Dual effects of carbamazepine-phenytoin interaction. Ther Drug Monit 9:21–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zielinski JJ, Haidukewych D, BJn L (1985) Carbamazepine-phenytoin interaction: elevation of plasma phenytoin concentrations due to carbamazepine comedication. Ther Drug Monit 7:51–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zhu L, Persson A, Mahnke L et al (2011) Effect of low-dose omeprazole (20 mg daily) on the pharmacokinetics of multiple-dose atazanavir with ritonavir in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 51: 368-377Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pietro Fagiolino
    • 1
  • Marta Vázquez
    • 1
  • Manuel Ibarra
    • 1
  • Cecilia Maldonado
    • 1
  • Rosa Eiraldi
    • 1
  1. 1.Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Faculty of ChemistryUniversidad de La RepúblicaMontevideoUruguay

Personalised recommendations