Advertisement

Nematodes of Agricultural Importance in Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri and Ohio

  • Andreas Westphal
  • John J. Chitambar
  • Sergei A. Subbotin
Chapter
Part of the Sustainability in Plant and Crop Protection book series (SUPP)

Abstract

In the North Central Region of the U.S, in the five states of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri and Ohio agricultural production is predominated by maize and soybean. In this southern portion of the Mississippi River Drainage Basin, precipitation is mostly distributed throughout the year allowing for efficient dryland farming on fertile soils. The large-acre crops maize and soybean have a limited number of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause economic damage. Especially Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode, SCN) is a constant threat to sustainable soybean production. Other plant-parasitic nematodes, e.g. root-knot nematodes, are more localized in occurrence but can cause severe yield losses in specialty crops like watermelon or other vegetable crops.

References

  1. Allen, J. B., Bond, J. P., & Schmidt, M. E. (2005). Incidence of Meloidogyne incognita and development of resistant soybean germplasm in Illinois. Plant Health Progress.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2005-0606-01-RS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, T. W., Bradley, C. A., Sisson, A. J., Byamukama, E., Chilvres, M. I., Coker, C. M., Collins, A. A., Damincone, J. P., Dorrance, A. E., Dufault, N. S., Esker, P. D., Faske, T. R., Giesler, L. J., Grybauskas, A. P., Hershman, D. E., Hollier, C. A., Isakeit, T., Jardine, D. J., Kelly, H. M., Kemerait, R. C., Kleczewski, N. M., Koenning, S. R., Kurle, J. E., Malvick, D. K., Markell, S. G., Mehl, H. L., Mueller, D. S., Mueller, J. D., Mulrooney, R. P., Nelson, B. D., Newman, M. A., Osborne, L., Overstreet, C., Padgett, G. B., Phipps, P. M., Price, P. P., Sikora, E. J., Smith, D. L., Spurlock, T. N., Tande, C. A., Tenuta, A. U., Wise, K. A., & Wrather, J. A. (2017). Soybean yield loss estimates due to diseases in the United States and Ontario, Canada, from 2010 to 2014. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-RS-16-0066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. An, R., Karthik, N. K., & Grewal, P. (2017). Evaluation of botanical and chemical products for the control of foliar nematodes Aphelenchoides fragariae. Crop Protection, 92, 107–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anand, S. C. (1992). Registration of ‘Hartwig’ soybean. Crop Science, 32, 1069–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ankrom, K. E., Lopez-Nicora, H., Niblack, T. L., & Lindsey, L. E. (2017). First report of a pin nematode (Paratylenchus neoamblycephalus) from soybean in Ohio. Plant Disease, 101, 1330–1331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anon. (1984). Distribution on plant parasitic nematode species in North America. D.C. Norton, chairman, Nematode Geographical Distribution Committee. Hyattsville, MD, Society of Nematologists.Google Scholar
  7. Anon. (1999). Lesion nematodes. Report on Plant Disease. Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, RPD 1103.Google Scholar
  8. Anon. (2018). Clariva pn seed treatment. http://www.syngenta-us.com/seed-treatment/clariva-pn. Accessed 27 Mar 2018.
  9. Aoki, T., O’Donnell, K., Homma, Y., & Latanzi, A. R. (2003). Sudden-death syndrome of soybean is caused by two morphologically distinct species within the Fusarium solani species complex – F. virguliforme in North America and F. tucumaniae in South America. Mycologia, 95, 660–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Arelli, P., Mengistu, A., Nelson, R., Cianzio, S., & Vuong, T. (2015). New soybean accessions evaluated for reaction to Heterodera glycines populations. Crop Science, 55, 1236–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Atibalentja, N., Noel, G. R., Liao, T. F., & Gertner, G. Z. (1998). Population changes in Heterodera glycines and tis bacterial parasite Pasteuria sp. in naturally infested soil. Journal of Nematology, 30, 81–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bowen, K. L., Hagan, A. K., Campbell, H. L., & Nightendale, S. (2008). Effect of southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 3) on corn yields in Alabama. Plant Health Progress.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2008-0910-01-RS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, M. J., Riedel, R. M., & Rowe, R. C. (1980). Species of Pratylenchus associated with Solanum tuberosum cv Superior in Ohio. Journal of Nematology, 12, 189–192.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Carris, M., & Glawe, D. A. (1989) Fungi colonizing cysts of Heterodera glycines. USDA Bulletin 786, University of Illinois, Urbana.Google Scholar
  15. Chen, S. (2007). Suppression of Heterodera glycines in soils from fields with long-term soybean monoculture. Bicontrol Science and Technology, 17, 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen, S., Wyse, D. L., Johnson, G. A., Porter, P. M., Stetina, S. R., Miller, D. R., Betts, K. J., Klossner, L. D., & Haar, M. J. (2006). Effect of cover crops alfalfa, red clover, and perennial ryegrass on soybean cyst nematode population and soybean and corn yields in Minnesota. Crop Science, 46, 1890–1897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cianzio, S. R., Arelli, P. R., Swaminathan, S., Lundeen, P., Gebhart, G., Rivera-Velez, N., Guilherme, S. R., Soares, I. O., Diers, B. W., Knapp, H., Westgate, M., & Hudson, M. E. (2018). Genetically diverse soybean cyst nematode–resistant full-sib soybean germplasm lines AR4SCN, AR5SCN, AR6SCN, AR7SCN, and AR8SCN. Journal of Plant Registrations, 12, 124–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cook, R. J., & Baker, K. F. (1983). The nature and practice of biological control of plant pathogens (539 pp). St. Paul: The American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
  19. Creech, J. E., Webb, J. S., Young, B. G., Bond, J. P., Harrison, S. K., Ferris, V. R., Faghihi, J., Westphal, A., & Johnson, W. G. (2007). Development of soybean cyst nematode on henbit (Lamium amplexicaule) and purple deadnettle (Lamium purpureum). Weed Technology, 21, 1064–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. da Silva, M. P., Tylka, G. L., & Munkvold, G. P. (2016). Seed treatment effects on maize seedlings coinfected with Fusarium spp. and Pratylenchus penetrans. Plant Disease, 100, 431–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davis, R. F., Wilkinson, H. T., & Noel, G. R. (1994a). Vertical distribution of three nematode genera in a bentgrass putting green in Central Illinois. Journal of Nematology, 26, 518–521.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Davis, R. F., Noel, G. R., & Wilkinson, H. T. (1994b). Pathogenecity of Tylenchorhynchus nudus to creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass. Plant Disease, 78, 169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis, R. F., Wilkinson, H. T., & Noel, G. R. (1994c). Root growth of bentgrass and annual bluegrass as influenced by coinfection with Tylenchorhynchus nudus and Magnaporthe poae. Journal of Nematology, 26, 86–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Edwards, D. I., & Taylor, D. P. (1963). Host range of an Illinois population of the stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) isolated from onion. Nematologica, 9, 305–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Faghihi, J., Vierling, R. A., Halbrendt, J. M., Ferris, V. R., & Ferris, J. M. (1995). Resistance genes in a ‘Williams 82’ × ‘Hartwig’ soybean cross to an inbred line of Heterodera glycines. Journal of Nematology, 27, 418–421.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Ferris, V. R., Ferris, J. M., Bernard, R. L., & Probst, A. H. (1971). Community structure of plant parasitic nematodes related to soil types in Illinois and Indiana soybean fields. Journal of Nematology, 3, 399–408.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Grewal, P. S., & Jagdale, G. B. (2001). Biology and management of foliar nematodes. The Hosta Journal, 32, 64–66.Google Scholar
  28. Harris, D. K., Boerma, H. R., Hussey, R. S., & Finnerty, S. L. (2003). Additional sources of soybean germplasm resistant to two species of root knot nematode. Crop Science, 43, 1848–1851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heinlein, M. A. (1982). Symptomatology and host range of Aphelenchoides fragariae (Ritzema-Bos, 1890) Christie 1932 on the Gesneriaceae. M.Sc. thesis. The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 53 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Hewezi, T., & Baum, T. J. (2017). Chapter twelve – communication of sedentary plant parasitic nematodes with their host plants. In Advances in botanical research (Vol. 82, pp. 305–324).Google Scholar
  31. Howland, A., Nathan, M., & Mitchum, M. G. (2016). The distribution and management practices of Heterodera glycines in Missouri in 2015. Journal of Nematology, 348, 377–378.Google Scholar
  32. Jagdale, G. B., & Grewal, P. S. (2002). Identification of alternatives for the management of foliar nematodes in floriculture. Pest Management Science, 58, 451–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jagdale, G. B., & Grewal, P. S. (2004). Effectiveness of a hot water drench for the control of foliar nematodes, Aphelenchoides fragariae, in floriculture. Journal of Nematology, 36, 49–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Jagdale, G. B., & Grewal, P. S. (2006). Infection behavior and overwintering survival of foliar nematodes, Aphelenchoides fragariae, on hosta. Journal of Nematology, 38, 130–136.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Joseph, S., Akyazi, F., Habteweld, A. W., Meteke, T., Creswell, T., Ruhl, G. E., & Faghihi, J. (2018). First report of cyst nematode (Heterodera iri) in Ohio. Plant Disease, 102, 1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kim, D. G., Riggs, R. D., & Correll, J. C. (1998). Isolation, characterization, and distribution of a biocontrol fungus from cysts of Heterodera glycines. Phytopathology, 88, 465–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Koenning, S. R. (2000). Density-dependent yield of Heterodera glycines-resistant and susceptible cultivars. Journal of Nematology, 32, 502–507.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Koenning, S. R., & Wrather, J. A. (2010). Suppression of soybean yield potential in the continental United States by plant diseases from 2006 to 2009. Plant Health Progress.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2010-1122-01-RS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kruger, G. R., Xing, L. J., Santini, J. B., & Westphal, A. (2007). Distribution and damage caused by root-knot nematodes on soybean in southwest Indiana. Plant Health Progress.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2007-1031-01-RS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kruger, G. R., Xing, L. J., LeRoy, A., & Westphal, A. (2008). Meloidogyne incognita resistance in soybean under Midwest conditions. Crop Science, 48, 716–726.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2007.04.0196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lawn, D. A., & Noel, G. R. (1986). Field interrelationships among Heterodera glycines, Pratylenchus scribneri, and three other nematode species associated with soybean. Journal of Nematology, 18, 98–106.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Logsdon, C. E., Taylor, D. P., Bergeson, G. B., Ferris, J. M., Norton, D. C., Dickerson, O. J., Knierim, J. A., MacDonald, D. H., Jenkins, L., Schuster, M. L., Pepper, E. H., Wilson, J. D., Malek, R. B., & Darling, H. M. (1968). Nematology in the North Central Region, 1956–1966. Special Report 58, 20 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Lopez-Nicora, H. D., Mekete, T., Sekora, N., & Niblack, T. L. (2014). First report of the stubby-root nematode (Paratrichodorus allius) from a corn field in Ohio. Plant Disease, 98, 1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mai, W. F., Bloom, J. R., & Chen, T. A. (1977). Biology and ecology of the plant parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Bulletin, Pennsylvania State University, Agricultural Experiment Station 815, 66 pp.Google Scholar
  45. Malek, R. B., Norton, D. C., Jacobsen, B. J., & Acosta, N. (1980). A new corn disease caused by Longidorus breviannulatus in the Midwest. Plant Disease, 64, 1110–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McCarville, M. T., Marett, C. C., Mullaney, M. P., Gebhart, G. D., & Tylka, G. L. (2017). Increase in soybean cyst nematode virulence and reproduction on resistant soybean varieties in Iowa from 2001 to 2015 and the effect on soybean yields. Plant Health Progress.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-RS-16-0062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McLean, K. S., & Lawrence, G. W. (1993). Interrelationship of Heterodera glycines and Fusarium solani in sudden death syndrome of soybean. Journal of Nematology, 25, 434–439.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Mekete, T., Gray, M. E., & Niblack, T. L. (2009). Distribution, morphological description, and molecular characterization of Xiphinema and Longidorous spp. associated with plants (Miscanthus spp. and Panicum virgatum) used for biofuels. GCB Bioenergy, 1, 257–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Michell, R. E., Malek, R. B., Taylor, D. P., & Edwards, D. I. (1973). Races of the barley root knot nematode, Meloidogyne naasi. I. Characterization by host preference. Journal of Nematology, 5, 41–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Mock, V. A., Creech, J. E., Ferris, V. R., Faghihi, J., Westphal, A., Santini, J. B., & Johnson, W. G. (2012). Influence of winter annual weed management and crop rotation on soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) and winter annual weeds: Years four and five. Weed Science, 60, 634–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Niblack, T. L. (1992a). Pratylenchus, Paratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, and other nematodes on soybean in Missouri. Supplement to Journal of Nematology, 24(4S), 738–744.Google Scholar
  52. Niblack, T. L. (1992b). Chapter 7: The race concept. In R. D. Riggs & J. A. Wrather (Eds.), Biology and management of the soybean cyst nematode (pp. 73–86). St. Paul: APS Press.Google Scholar
  53. Niblack, T. L. (2005). Soybean cyst nematode management reconsideration. Plant Disease, 89, 1020–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Niblack, T. L., Heinz, R. D., Smith, G. S., & Donald, P. A. (1993). Distribution, density, and diversity of Heterodera glycines in Missouri. Supplement to Journal of Nematology, 25(4S), 880–886.Google Scholar
  55. Niblack, T. L., Heinz, R. D., Smith, G. S., & Donald, P. A. (1994). Distribution and diversity of Heterodera glycines in Missouri. Journal of Nematology, 25, 880–886.Google Scholar
  56. Niblack, T. L., Arelli, P. R., Noel, G. R., Opperman, C. H., Orf, J. H., Schmitt, D. P., Shannon, J. G., & Tylka, G. L. (2002). A revised classification scheme for genetically diverse populations of Heterodera glycines. Journal of Nematology, 34, 279–288.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Niblack, T. L., Colgrove, A. L., Colgrove, K., & Bond, J. P. (2008). Shift in virulence of soybean cyst nematode is associated with use of resistance from PI 88788. Plant Health Progress.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2008-0118-01-RS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Noel, G. R. (1992). Chapter 1: History, distribution and economics. In R. D. Riggs & J. A. Wrather (Eds.), Biology and management of the soybean cyst nematode (pp. 1–14). St. Paul: APS Press.Google Scholar
  59. Noel, G. R., & White, D. (1994). Hosta: a new host record for Aphelenchoides fragariae. Plant Disease, 78, 924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Norton, D. C. (1977). Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus as a pathogen on corn, and its densities on corn and soybean. Iowa State Journal of Research, 51, 279–285.Google Scholar
  61. Norton, D. C. (1984). Maize nematode problems. Plant Disease, 67, 253–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Norton, D. C. (1989). Plant parasitic nematodes in Iowa. Journal of Iowa Academy of Sciences, 96, 24–32.Google Scholar
  63. Norton, D. C., & Hinz, P. (1976). Relationship of Hoplolaimus galeatus and Pratylenchus hexincisus to reduction of corn yields in sandy soils in Iowa. Plant Disease Report, 60, 197–200.Google Scholar
  64. Norton, D. C., & Schmitt, D. P. (1978). Community analyses of plant parasitic nematodes in the Kalsow prairie, Iowa. Journal of Nematology, 10, 171–176.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Norton, D. C., Dunlap, D., & Williams, D. D. (1982). Plant parasitic nematodes in Iowa: Longidoridae and Trichodoridae. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences, 89, 15–19.Google Scholar
  66. Norton, D. C., Cody, A. M., & Gabel, A. W. (1987). Subanguina calamagrostis and its biology in Calamagrostis spp. in Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Journal of Nematology, 19, 260–262.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Powers, T. O., Harris, T., Higgins, R., Sutton, L., & Powers, K. S. (2010). Morphological and molecular characterization of Discocriconemella inarata, an endemic nematode from North American Native tallgrass prairies. Journal of Nematology, 42, 35–45.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Riedel, R. M., & Golden, A. M. (1988). First report of Heterodera glycines on soybean in Ohio. Plant Disease, 72, 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ries, S. M., Noel, G. R., & Doll, C. C. (1979). Illinois peach orchard nematode survey. Transactions of the Illinois State Horticultural Society, 112, 22–24.Google Scholar
  70. Riggs, R. D., & Schmitt, D. P. (1988). Complete characterization of the race scheme for Heterodera glycines. Journal of Nematology, 20, 392–395.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Roy, K. W., Hershman, D. E., Rupe, J. C., & Abney, T. S. (1997). Sudden death syndrome of soybean. Plant Disease, 81, 1100–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Safford, J., & Riedel, R. M. (1976). Criconemoides species associated with golf course turf in Ohio. Plant Disease, 60, 405–408.Google Scholar
  73. Srour, A. Y., Gibson, D. J., Leandro, L. F. S., Malvick, D. K., Bond, J. P., & Fahoury, A. M. (2017). Unraveling microbial and edaphic factors affecting the development of sudden death syndrome in soybean. Phytobiomes, 1, 91–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tabor, G. M., Tylka, G. L., Behm, J. E., & Bronson, C. R. (2003). Heterodera glycines infection increases incidence and severity of brown stem rot in both resistant and susceptible soybean. Plant Disease, 87, 655–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tabor, G. M., Leandro, L., & Robertson, A. (2018). Brown stem rot and sudden death syndrome: Can you tell them apart? Iowa State University – Integrated Crop Management, online: https://crops.extension.iastate.edu/brown-stem-rot-and-sudden-death-syndrome-can-you-tell-them-apart. Accessed 13 Apr 2018.
  76. Taylor, D. P., Britton, M. P., & Hechler, H. C. (1963). Occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes in Illinois golf greens. Plant Disease Report, 47, 134–135.Google Scholar
  77. Testen, A. L., Walsh, E. K., Taylor, C. G., Miller, S. A., & Lopez-Nicora, H. D. (2014). First report of bloat nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) infecting garlic in Ohio. Plant Disease, 98, 859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tylka, G. (2016). Integrated management of Heterodera glycines in the midwestern United States. Journal of Nematology, 48, 377–378.Google Scholar
  79. Tylka, G. (2017, November 3). Over 1,000 SCN-resistant soybean varieties – all but 29 have PI 88788 resistance. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach Integrated Crop Management News.Google Scholar
  80. Tylka, G. L., & Marett, C. C. (2017). Known distribution of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, in the United States and Canada, 1954 to 2017. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-05-17-0031-BR.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tylka, G. L., Sisson, A. J., Jesse, L. C., Kennicker, J., & Marett, C. C. (2011). Testing for plant parasitic nematodes that feed on corn in Iowa 2000–2010. Online. Plant Health Progress, 5. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2011-1205-01-RS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. USDA-NASS. (2018). Area planted for all purposes, yield and production for soybean and corn quickstats. Washington, DC: USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS).Google Scholar
  83. Venkatesh, R., Harrison, S. K., & Riedel, R. M. (2000). Weed hosts of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in Ohio. Weed Technology, 14, 156–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vierling, R. A., Faghihi, J., Ferris, V. R., & Ferris, M. (2000). Methods for conferring broad-based soybean cyst nematode resistance to a soybean line. United States Patent number 6,096,944.Google Scholar
  85. Villamil, M. B., Bollero, G. A., Darmoday, R. G., Simmons, F. W., & Bullock, D. G. (2006). No-till corn/soybean systems including winter cover crops: Effects on soil properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70, 1936–1944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Von Qualen, R. H., Abney, T. S., Huber, D. H., & Schreiber, M. M. (1989). Effects of rotation, tillage, and fumigation on premature dying of soybean. Plant Disease, 73, 740–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Walters, S. A., Bond, J. P., Russell, J. B., Taylor, B. H., & Handoo, Z. A. (2008). Incidence and influence of plant parasitic nematodes in southern Illinois peach orchards. Nematropica, 38, 63–74.Google Scholar
  88. Westphal, A. (2011). Sustainable approaches to the management of plant parasitic nematodes and disease complexes. Journal of Nematology, 43, 122–125.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Westphal, A., & Xing, L. J. (2011). Soil suppressiveness against the disease complex of the soybean cyst nematode and sudden death syndrome of soybean. Phytopathology, 101, 878–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Westphal, A., Xing, L. J., & Egel, D. S. (2006). Use of cover crops for management of root knot nematodes in cucurbits. Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions, presentation 22–1 to 22–3, Orlando, FL, November 5–9, 2006.Google Scholar
  91. Westphal, A., Abney, T. S., Xing, L. J., & Shaner, G. (2008). Sudden death syndrome of soybean. The Plant Health Instructor.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHI-I-2008-0102-01.
  92. Westphal, A., Xing, L. J., Pillsbury, R., & Vyn, T. J. (2009). Effects of tillage on population densities of Heterodera glycines. Field Crops Research, 113, 218–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wheeler, T. A., & Riedel, R. M. (1994). Interaction among Pratylenchus penetrans, P. scribneri, and Verticillium dahlia in the potato early dying disease complex. Journal of Nematology, 26, 228–234.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Willson, H. R., Riedel, R. M., Eisley, J. B., Young, C. E., Jasinski, J. R., Wheeler, T. A., Kauffman, P. H., Pierson, P. E., & Stuart, M. C. (1996). Distribution of Heterodera glycines in Ohio. Supplement to Journal of Nematology, 28(4S), 599–603.Google Scholar
  95. Wilson, J.D., & Walker, J.T. (1961). An inventory of stylet-bearing nematodes in Ohio. Ohio Agricultural Experimental Station, Wooster, Ohio. Special Circular 97, 10 pp.Google Scholar
  96. Winstead, N. N., Skotland, C. B., & Sasser, J. N. (1955). Soybean-cyst nematode in North Carolina. Plant Disease Report, 39, 9–11.Google Scholar
  97. Wong, A. T. S., & Tylka, G. L. (1994). Eight nonhost weed species of Heterodera glycines in Iowa. Plant Disease, 78, 365–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wrather, A., & Koenning, S. (2009). Effects of diseases on soybean yield sin the United States 1996 to 2007. Plant Health Progress.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2009-0401-01-RS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wrather, J. A., Niblack, T. L., & Milam, M. R. (1992). Survey of plant parasitic nematodes in Missouri cotton fields. Supplement to Journal of Nematology, 224(4S), 779–782.Google Scholar
  100. Xing, L. J., & Westphal, A. (2013). Synergism in the interaction of Fusarium virguliforme and Heterodera glycines in sudden death syndrome of soybean. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 120, 209–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yang, J. I., Benecke, S., Jeske, D. R., Rocha, F. S., Smith Becker, J., Timper, P., Becker, J. O., & Borneman, J. (2012). Population dynamics of Dactylella oviparasitca and Heterodera schachtii: Toward a decision model for sugar beet planting. Journal of Nematology, 44, 237–244.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Ye, W., & Robbins, R. T. (2004). Cluster analysis of Longidorus species (Nematoda: Longidoridae), a new approach in species identification. Journal of Nematology, 36, 207–219.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Westphal
    • 1
  • John J. Chitambar
    • 2
  • Sergei A. Subbotin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NematologyUniversity of California Riverside, Kearney Research and Extension CenterParlierUSA
  2. 2.California Department of Food and AgriculturePlant Pest Diagnostic CenterSacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations