Advertisement

Sectarian Violence and Ethnic Conflict in India: Issues and Challenges

  • Ashwani Kumar
  • Souradeep Banerjee
Chapter
Part of the Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Rights book series (CHREN, volume 2)

Abstract

Human rights education is no longer considered an alien normative and discursive practice in the inter-governmental discussions and civil society actions because human rights have increasingly become more universal in the sense that they are held to be a guarantee of ideals of equality and enhance moral autonomy of rational human beings, irrespective of their own specific desires, identities or partial interests. Seen from this perspective, this chapter discusses ethnic conflict and sectarian violence in India in the context of human rights violations by the state and by non-state actors. Given the relative silence of discussion of sectarian violence in human rights literacy, we argue that interrogation of various types of ethnic violence is urgently required for understanding the evolution of universal and inalienable regime of human rights in varying institutional and cultural contexts across nations. Based on empirical data, we conclude that the case studies of sectarian and communal violence from a plural, diverse democracy like India have potential to contribute to reframing the discussion of human rights literacy in the universities and college/school class rooms.

References

  1. Andersen, B. (1983). Imagined communities; Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  2. Austin, G. (1993). The constitution, society and law. In P. Oldenburg (Ed.), India briefing (pp. 121–135). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bajaj, M. (2011). Human rights education: Ideology, location, and approaches. Human Rights Quarterly, 33(l), 481–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beher, P. R. (1999). Human rights: Universality in practice. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhargav, R. (2018). Secular Hindu, Secular Muslim. The Hindu, 15 April 2018.Google Scholar
  6. Brass, P. R. (1997). Theft of an idol. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Brass, P. R. (2003). Participation of India and the retributive genocide in the Punjab 1946-47: Means and methods and purposes. Journal of Genocide Research, 5(1), 71–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bromley, P., Meyer, J. W., & Ramirez, F. O. (2011). The worldwide spread of environmental discourse in social science textbooks: Cross-national patterns and hierarchical linear models. Comparative Education Review, 55(4), 517–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, M. E. (Ed.). (1996). The international dimensions of internal conflict. Cambridge, MA: MIT International Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cardenas, S. (2005). Constructing rights? Human rights education and the state. International Political Science Review, 26(4), 363–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chibber, P. K., & Petrocik, J. R. (1989). The puzzle of Indian politics: Social cleavages and the Indian party system. British Journal of political science, 19(2), 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Das, A. (1992). The republic of Bihar. India: Penguin.Google Scholar
  13. Dumont, L. (1966). Homo hierarchicu. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  14. Frank, D. J., & Meyer, J. W. (2007). University expansion and the knowledge society. Theory and Society, 36, 287–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gurr, T. R., & Harff, B. (1994). Ethnic conflict in world politics (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: West View Press.Google Scholar
  16. Horowitz, D. (2000). The deadly ethnic riot. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  17. Jodhka, S. S. (2010). Caste and politics. In N. G. Jayal & P. B. Mehta (Eds.), The Oxford companion to politics in India (pp. 154–167). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Jones, P. (1999). Human rights, group rights and peoples’ rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 21(1), 80–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaufman, S. (2001). Modern hatred: The symbolic politics of Ethnic War. New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Khilnani, S. (1997). The idea of India. London: Hamish Hamilton.Google Scholar
  21. Kothari, R. (1970). Caste in Indian politics. Delhi: Orient Blackswan.Google Scholar
  22. Kumar, A. (2008). The community warriors: State, peasants and caste armies in Bihar. New York: Anthem Press.Google Scholar
  23. Meyer, J. W., Bromley, P., & Ramirez, F. O. (2010). Human rights in social science textbooks: Cross- national analysis, 1970–2008. Sociology of Education, 83(2), 111–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nandy, A. (2002). Obituary of a culture. Seminar, 513, May 2002, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  25. Nelson, J. M. (1998). Poverty, inequality, and conflict in developing countries. Project on World Security. New York: Rockefeller Brothers’ Fund.Google Scholar
  26. Pradeep, C., & Petrocik, J. R. (1989). The puzzle of Indian politics: Social cleavages and the Indian party system. British Journal of Political Science, 19(2), 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Roux, C. (2012). Research proposal: Human Rights Literacy: Quest for meaning. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://hrlit.org/documents
  28. Rudolph, L. I., & Rudolph, S. H. (1987). In pursuit of Laxmi: The political economy of The Indian State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  29. Schofer, E., & Hironaka, A. (2005). The effects of world society on environment protection outcomes. Social Forces, 84(1), 25–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Suarez, D., & Bromley, P. (2012). Professionalizing a global social movement: Universities and human rights. American Journal of Education, 118(3), 253–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Subramaniam, K. S. (2007). Political violence and the police in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  32. Tocqueville, A. D. (1954). Democracy in America, (Translated by Henry Reeve). New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  33. Varshney, A. (2002). Ethnic conflict and civic life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Wilkinson, S. I. (2004). Votes and violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tata Institute for Social SciencesMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations