Advertisement

Research Ethics, Governance, and the Future

  • Claretha Hughes
Chapter

Abstract

Human resource development (HRD) scholars and professionals must follow research ethics, assist with governance within their organizations, and prepare for the future. Understanding Institutional Review Board (IRB) polices and Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requirements and exhibiting research ethics are vital to the career success of HRD scholars and professionals. They must practice and teach appropriate research ethics. Governance is an area where HRD scholars and professionals have growth potential. HRD scholars and practitioners must continuously examine interventions that could reduce the negative effects of unethical behavior in the workplace and accentuate the positive effects of HRD related interventions. They must provide readily available solutions as leaders and employees continuously face ethical dilemmas in the workplace. As future trends continue with artificial intelligence and robotics in the workplace, HRD scholars and professionals must assist organization leaders as they develop ethical and legal policies to address these changes.

References

  1. Alnaji, L., Askari, M. Y., & Refae, G. A. E. (2016). Can tolerance of diverse groups improve the wellbeing of societies? International Journal of Economics and Business Research, 11(1), 48–57.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEBR.2016.074428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, V., Garavan, T., & Sadler-Smith, E. (2014). Corporate social responsibility, sustainability, ethics and international human resource development. Human Resource Development International, 17, 497–498.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13678868.2014.954187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ardichvili, A. (2012). Sustainability or limitless expansion: Paradigm shift in HRD practice and teaching. European Journal of Training and Development, 36, 873–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ardichvili, A. (2013). The role of HRD in CSR, sustainability, and ethics: A relational model. Human Resource Development Review, 12, 456–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ardichvili, A., & Jondle, D. (2009). Integrative literature review: Ethical business cultures: A literature review and implications for HRD. Human Resource Development Review, 8, 223–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ardichvili, A., Jondle, D., & Kowske, B. (2010). Dimensions of ethical business cultures: Comparing data from 13 countries of Europe, Asia, and the Americas. Human Resource Development International, 13(3), 299–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ardichvili, A., Jondle, D., & Kowske, B. (2012). Minding the gap: Exploring differences in perceptions of ethical business cultures among executives, mid-level managers and non-managers. Human Resource Development International, 15(3), 337–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aristotle. (1894). Ethica nicomachea (I. Bywater, Ed.). Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  9. Aristotle. (1985). Nicomachean ethics (T. H. Irwin, Trans.). Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  10. Armitage, A. (2018). Is HRD in need of an ethics of care? Human Resource Development International, 21(3), 212–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Banks, J. A. (2008). Diversity, group identity, and citizenship education in a global age. Educational Researcher, 37(3), 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bass, L. (2009). Fostering an ethic of care in leadership: A conversation with five African American women. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11, 619–632.Google Scholar
  13. Blake, A. (2017, January 22). Kellyanne Conway says Donald Trump’s team has ‘alternative facts.’ Which pretty much says it all. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2017/01/22/kellyanne-conway-says-donald-trumps-team-has-alternate-facts-which-pretty-much-says-it-all/?utm_term=.79715c9b800f
  14. Brandt, A. M. (1978). Racism and research: The case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Hastings Center Report, 8(6), 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brodo, R. (2018, May). For sales professionals practice will make perfect. TD Magazine, 72(5), 44–48.Google Scholar
  16. Bruton, S. V. (2015). Looks-based hiring and wrongful discrimination. Business & Society Review, 120(00453609), 607–635.  https://doi.org/10.1111/basr.12076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buchanan, E. A., & Hvizdak, E. E. (2009). Online survey tools: Ethical and methodological concerns of human research ethics committees. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, 4(2), 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burke, L. A., & Hutchins, H. M. (2007). Training transfer: An integrative literature review. Human Resource Development Review, 6, 263–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Byrd, M. Y. (2017). Does HRD have a moral duty to respond to matters of social injustice? Human Resource Development International, 21(1), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Byrd, M. Y. (2018). Diversity branding strategy: Concealing implicit stereotypes and biased behaviors. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(3), 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Callahan, J. (2013). Creating a critical constructionist HRD. Human Resource Development Review, 12, 387–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chalofsky, N. (2000). Professional morality and integrity: Helping the tin man find his heart. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2(3), 28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cho, E. (2009). Work values and business ethics in Korea. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11, 235–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Claus, V. A. (2013). Perceptions of human resource development professionals toward their professional association’s standards on ethics and integrity (Unpublished dissertation). Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.Google Scholar
  25. Cooke, N. A. (2017). Posttruth, truthiness, and alternative facts: Information behavior and critical information consumption for a new age. The Library Quarterly, 87, 211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Corbie-Smith, G. (1999). The continuing legacy of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Considerations for clinical investigation. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 317(1), 5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Corley, K. G., & Gioia, D. A. (2011). Building theory about theory building: What constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 12–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Craft, J. L. (2010). Making the case for ongoing and interactive organizational ethics training. Human Resource Development International, 13, 599–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Delaney, J. T., & Sockell, D. (1992). Do company ethics training programs make a difference? An empirical analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 719–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dennis, A. R. (1996). Information exchange and use in group decision making: You can lead a group to information, but you can’t make it think. MIS Quarterly, 20, 433–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dobbin, F., Sutton, J. R., Meyer, J. W., & Scott, W. R. (1993). Equal opportunity law and the construction of internal labor markets. American Journal of Sociology, 99, 396–427.  https://doi.org/10.1086/230269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dobbin, F., Kim, S., & Kalev, A. (2011). You can’t always get what you need: Organizational determinants of diversity programs. American Sociological Review, 76, 386–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Douglas, D. (2004). Ethical challenges of an increasingly diverse workforce: The paradox of change. Human Resource Development International, 7, 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Edelman, L. B. (1990). Legal environments and organizational governance: The expansion of due process in the American workplace. American Journal of Sociology, 95, 1401–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fenwick, T., & Bierema, L. (2008). Corporate social responsibility: Issues for human resource development professionals. International Journal of Training & Development, 12(1), 24–35.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2419.2007.00293.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fisher, C. (2005). HRD attitudes: Or the roles and ethical stances of human resource developers. Human Resource Development International, 8(2), 239–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Foote, M. F., & Ruona, W. E. (2008). Institutionalizing ethics: A synthesis of frameworks and the implications for HRD. Human Resource Development Review, 7, 292–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frisque, D. A., & Kolb, J. A. (2008). The effects of an ethics training program on attitude, knowledge, and transfer of training of office professionals: A treatment and control group design. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 19(1), 35–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Galagan, P. (2018, May). 75 years; Former TD editor Pat Galagan reflects on the association’s past and future. TD Magazine, 72(5), 27–30.Google Scholar
  40. Garavan, T. N., & McGuire, D. (2010). Human resource development and society: Human resource development’s role in embedding corporate social responsibility, sustainability, and ethics in organizations. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12, 487–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gardiner, R. A. (2017). Authentic leadership through an ethical prism. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 19, 467–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gotsis, G., & Grimani, K. (2016). Diversity as an aspect of effective leadership: Integrating and moving forward. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 37, 241–264.  https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-06-2014-0107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guillemin, M., & Gillam, L. (2004). Ethics, reflexivity, and “ethically important moments” in research. Qualitative Inquiry, 10, 261–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harrison, D. A., & Klein, K. J. (2007). What’s the difference? Diversity constructs as separation, variety, or disparity in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32, 1199–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harrison, D. A., Price, K. H., & Bell, M. P. (1998). Beyond relational demography: Time and the effects of surface-and deep-level diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 96–107.Google Scholar
  46. Harrison, D. A., Price, K. H., Gavin, J. H., & Florey, A. T. (2002). Time, teams, and task performance: Changing effects of surface-and deep-level diversity on group functioning. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 1029–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hartman, E. M. (2006). Can we teach character? An Aristotelian answer. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5(1), 68–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hatcher, T., & Aragon, S. R. (2000a). A code of ethics and integrity for HRD research and practice. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11(2), 179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hatcher, T., & Aragon, S. R. (2000b). Rationale for and development of a standard on ethics and integrity for international HRD research and practice. Human Resource Development International, 3, 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hatcher, T., & Aragon, S. (2001). Academy of Human Resource Development standards on ethics and integrity. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 3(1), 7–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Herring, C. (2009). Does diversity pay? Race, gender, and the business case for diversity. American Sociological Review, 74, 208–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hughes, C. (2016). Using diversity intelligence for an inclusive organization. TD: Talent Development, 70(6), 76–77.Google Scholar
  53. Hughes, C. (Preface). (2018a). The role of HRD in using diversity intelligence to enhance leadership skill development and talent management strategy. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(3), 259–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hughes, C. (2018b). Conclusion: Diversity intelligence as a core of diversity training and leadership development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(3), 370–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hughes, C., & Brown, L. (2018). Exploring leaders’ discriminatory, passive-aggressive behavior toward protected class employees using diversity intelligence. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(3), 263–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hughes, C., & Maimseishvili, K. (2018). Linguistic profiling in the workplace. In C. Scott & M. Bryd (Eds.), Workforce diversity: Current and emerging trends and cases (Chapter 11, 2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Hutchinson, M., & Hall, M. J. (2018). Modernization the learning scape with creation. TD Magazine, 72(5), 57–61.Google Scholar
  58. Ianinska, S. (2008). Human resource development professionals’ perceptions about the academy of human resource development standards on ethics and integrity (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/33/19/3319005.html
  59. Jacobson, D. (1999). Doing research in cyberspace. Field Methods, 11(2), 127–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jayne, M. E., & Dipboye, R. L. (2004). Leveraging diversity to improve business performance: Research findings and recommendations for organizations. Human Resource Management, 43, 409–424.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jones, R. A. (1994). The ethics of research in cyberspace. Internet Research, 4(3), 30–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaiser, C. R., Major, B., Jurcevic, I., Dover, T. L., Brady, L. M., & Shapiro, J. R. (2013). Presumed fair: Ironic effects of organizational diversity structures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 504–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kalev, A., Dobbin, F., & Kelly, E. (2006). Best practices or best guesses? Diversity management and the remediation of inequality. American Sociological Review, 71, 589–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kaye, B., & Williams, L. (2018, July). Career development’s (r)evolution. TD Magazine, 72(7), 44–48.Google Scholar
  65. Ke, J., & Wang, G. G. (2014). China’s ethical dilemmas under globalization and uncertainty: Implications for HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 16(1), 74–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Keep, J. (2007). Fitness to practice: Can well-balanced, supported HRD practitioners better deal with ethical and moral conundrums? Human Resource Development International, 10(4), 465–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kim, T., Park, J. Y., & Kolb, J. A. (2014). Examining the AHRD standards on ethics and integrity using a multiple ethical paradigms approach. Human Resource Development Review, 13, 293–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. King, S. A. (1996). Researching Internet communities: Proposed ethical guidelines for the reporting of results. The Information Society, 12(2), 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Klimoski, R. (2006). Introduction: Aristotle as a business ethics professor. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5(1), 66–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Konopka, Z. J. (2018, May). Prepare your organization for adaptive learning. TD Magazine, 72(5), 20–22.Google Scholar
  71. Kuchinke, K. P. (2017). The ethics of HRD practice. Human Resource Development International, 20, 361–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. MacKenzie, C. A., Garavan, T. N., & Carbery, R. (2012). Through the looking glass: Challenges for human resource development (HRD) post the global financial crisis–business as usual? Human Resource Development International, 15, 353–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McDonald, K. S., & Hite, L. (2005). Ethical issues in mentoring: The role of HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7, 569–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McLean, G. N. (2001a). Ethical dilemmas and the many hats of HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 12, 219–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McLean, G. N. (2001b). Ethical dilemmas in conducting international research. Human Resource Development International, 4(1), 21–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Miville, M. L., Duan, C., Nutt, R. L., Waehler, C. A., Suzuki, L., Pistole, M. C., … Corpus, M. (2009). Integrating practice guidelines into professional training implications for diversity competence. The Counseling Psychologist, 37, 519–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morse, J. M. (1998). The contracted relationship: Ensuring protection of anonymity and confidentiality. Qualitative Health Research, 8, 301–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Noelliste, M. (2013). Integrity: An intrapersonal perspective. Human Resource Development Review, 12, 474–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). E-research: Ethics, security, design, and control in psychological research on the Internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 161–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Oakes, J. M. (2002). Risks and wrongs in social science research: An evaluator’s guide to the IRB. Evaluation Review, 26, 443–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Corrigan, J. A. (2014). Improving the quality of mixed research reports in the field of human resource development and beyond: A call for rigor as an ethical practice. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25, 273–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ortiz, C. C. (2018). Virtually painless: Introduce virtual reality to your organization. TD Magazine, 72(5), 78–79.Google Scholar
  83. Parvizi, J., Tarity, T. D., Conner, K., & Smith, J. B. (2007). Institutional review board approval: Why it matters. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 89, 418–426.Google Scholar
  84. Pritchard, I. A. (2002). Travelers and trolls: Practitioner research and institutional review boards. Educational Researcher, 31(3), 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Robert, L. P., Jr., Dennis, A. R., & Ahuja, M. K. (2018, July 26). Differences are different: Examining the effects of communication media on the impacts of racial and gender diversity in decision-making teams. Information Systems Research. Published online in Articles in Advance.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.2018.0773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ruona, W. E. (2016). Evolving human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 18, 551–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Russ-Eft, D. (2003). Corporate ethics: Learning and performance problem for leaders? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14, 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Russ-Eft, D. (2018). Second time around: AHRD standards on ethics and integrity. Human Resource Development Review, 17(2), 123–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Russ-Eft, D., & Hatcher, T. (2003). The issue of international values and beliefs: The debate for a global HRD code of ethics. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5, 296–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sample, J. (2015). Compliance and ethics programmes and the federal sentencing guidelines for organizations in the United States: Implications for international HRD specialists. Human Resource Development International, 18, 295–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sanford, B. K. (2001). Ethical issues in certification of HRD practice. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 3(1), 86–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Scanlon, P. M., & Schmitz, J. K. (2001). Ethical issues in program planning: Responding to the needs of adult learners. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 3(1), 90–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sekerka, L. E. (2009). Organizational ethics education and training: A review of best practices and their application. International Journal of Training and Development, 13(2), 77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Seligson, A., & Choi, L. (2005). Critical elements of an organizational ethical culture. Washington, DC: Ethics Resource Center.Google Scholar
  95. Short, D. C., & Callahan, J. L. (2005). ‘Would I work for a global corporation?’ And other ethical questions for HRD. Human Resource Development International, 8(1), 121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Steward, J. (1998). Intervention and assessment: The ethics of HRD. Human Resource Development International, 1(1), 16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tzafestas, S. G. (2018). Ethics in robotics and automation: A general view. International Robotics & Automation Journal, 4, 229–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. U. S. Department of Justice. (n.d.). Freedom of information act (FOIA). Retrieved on August 2, 2018, from https://www.foia.gov/about.html
  99. Valentine, S., & Fleischman, G. (2004). Ethics training and businesspersons’ perceptions of organizational ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 52, 391–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Valentine, S., Hollingworth, D., & Francis, C. A. (2013). Quality related HR practices, organizational ethics, and positive work attitudes: Implications for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 24, 493–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Walther, J. B. (2002). Research ethics in Internet-enabled research: Human subjects issues and methodological myopia. Ethics and Information Technology, 4, 205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wells, D., & Schminke, M. (2001). Ethical development and human resources training: An integrative framework. Human Resource Management Review, 11, 135–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1053-4822(00)00044-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Werner, J. M. (2016). Publication ethics and HRDQ: Holding ourselves accountable. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 27, 317–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wiles, R., Crow, G., Heath, S., & Charles, V. (2008). The management of confidentiality and anonymity in social research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 11, 417–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claretha Hughes
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Arkansas at FayettevilleFayettevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations