Ultrasonography (US) is performed using physical properties of ultrasound, i.e. acoustic waves propagated within a patient’s body with frequency above 20,000 Hz. Feasibility of an ultrasound unit depends on the available probes. In diagnostics of TMJ, high-frequency linear probes (preferably over 12 MHz) with a relatively small “footprint” are used as they offer high resolution of image with a relatively low penetration depth which is sufficient in examinations of these superficially located joints. Intraoral probes are useful in imaging of masticatory muscles. As far as TMJ is concerned, the following applications were described: joint effusion, internal derangement and disc displacement; osteoarthrosis including condylar erosion; rheumatoid, psoriatic and juvenile idiopathic arthritis with TMJ involvement as well as polyarthritis; joint function basing on condylar translation range; condylar movement using Duplex Doppler; intrauterine TMJ dislocation; and interventional procedures such as guidance in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), guidance for TMJ arthrocentesis and steroid injections. There are neither contraindications for ultrasound scanning nor special patient preparation required.
KeywordsUltrasound Temporomandibular joint Internal derangement
The authors would like to thank to Associate Prof. Dr. Nilsun Bagis, Dr. Poyzan Bozkurt, Dr. Dilek Yılmaz, Dr. Katarzyna Portka and Dr. Leszek Szalewski for their contributions to the chapter.
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