Conventional Radiography in TMJ Imaging

  • Keith HornerEmail author
  • David MacDonald


Conventional radiography includes simple projectional X-ray imaging along with panoramic radiography. All except panoramic radiography are obsolete, although the reverse Towne’s view may still be used for suspected mandibular trauma, and cephalograms, although not specifically TMJ radiography, are also used in assessment of some TMJ disorders. The three-dimensional morphology of the bony components of the TMJ does not facilitate conventional radiography. Panoramic radiography can only provide a crude representation of the condyle and temporal component of the TMJ and provides no information about their interrelationships. Its role is as an initial assessment tool before deciding on cross-sectional imaging (CBCT, CT or MR) and to investigate patients with symptoms which might be explicable as dental in origin but which are not localised or specific enough to be assessed using intraoral radiography. Specific criteria can help to determine whether there is any value in using panoramic radiography, and routine screening is not supported by evidence.


Temporomandibular joint Temporomandibular joint disorders Radiography X-rays Panoramic radiography Diagnosis Mandibular injuries 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Dentistry, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and HealthThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Division of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Oral, Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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