Status of Red Sea Dugongs

  • Dirar NasrEmail author
  • Ahmed M. Shawky
  • Peter Vine
Part of the Springer Oceanography book series (SPRINGEROCEAN)


Dugongs (Dugong dugon), also known as ‘sea cows’, have captured the imagination of the general public ever since they were first scientifically named in the 18th century. Much of the research on dugongs has been undertaken in Australia and SE Asia and publications are rarely dedicated specifically to the Red Sea population of dugongs and their conservation status. This is a reflection of the relatively poor state of knowledge of Red Sea dugongs—a situation that has changed marginally in the case of Egypt through research work undertaken by the second author. Methods employed to count dugongs, in order to estimate the size of a particular population, vary according to the general nature of their habitats (e.g., close to shore in sheltered bays or over deeper water further offshore), the frequency of sightings and facilities available to the surveying team, both in terms of observation platforms (e.g., helicopter, fixed-wing aeroplane, drone, boat or car) and time that can be allotted to the task. Given the seasonal nature of their behaviour, it would seem necessary that surveys in particular areas extend over at least 12 months and preferably longer. Research on this species in the Red Sea began with largely anatomical and physiological work on dugongs that were accidentally killed or purposely netted. Today, they are protected throughout the region so studies have shifted, largely to observations of live animals in the wild and to data that can be collected from stranded carcasses. Meanwhile, much of the data on their distribution, both in the Red Sea and elsewhere, is based on tapping into the local knowledge of fishermen and, more recently, dive guides at marine resorts.



We wish to acknowledge the cooperation of the many biologists who have studied the Red Sea’s dugongs in recent years. Some, but not all, of their work is referenced in this review. Institutional cooperation with, and interest in, dugongs has been sustained, and mention must be made of The Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The recent dugong studies in Egypt by Ahmed Shawky would not have been possible without the financial assistance of Rufford Small Grant (RSG: 17553-1, 21354-2), which is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks go to PADI for approving the ‘Dugong Conservation Distinctive Specialty Diver Course’.


  1. Abu El-Regal MA, El-Moselhy K, El-Saman MM (2012) Evaluation of threats to the rare and endangered inhabitants of the seagrass beds in the Red Sea: a case study at Abu Dabbab bay, Marsa Alam, Egypt. J Egypt Acad Soc Environ Develop 7(1):1–15Google Scholar
  2. Adulyanukosol K, Dulyanukosol K, Prasittipornkul C, Man-anansap SO, Boukaew P (2009) Stranding records of dugong (Dugong dugon) in Thailand. In: Proceedings of 4th international symposium on SEASTAR2000 and Asian bio-logging science (The 8th SEASTAR2000 workshop)Google Scholar
  3. Al-Abdulrazzak D, Pauly D (2017) Reconstructing historical baselines for the Persian/Arabian Gulf Dugong, Dugong dugon (Mammalia: Sirena). Zool Middle East 63(2):95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amamoto N, Ichikawa K, Arai N, Akamatsu T, Shinke T, Hara T, Adulyanukosol K (2009) Seasonal characterization of dugong feeding and biomass utilization on selected sites in Talibong Island. In: Proceedings of 4th international symposium on SEASTAR2000 and Asian bio-logging science (The 8th SEASTAR2000 workshop), pp 41–43Google Scholar
  5. Anand Y (2012) First record of feeding trails of dugongs in Gulf of Kachchh (GoK), Gujarat. Indian Forester 138(10):968–969Google Scholar
  6. Anderson PK (1982a) Studies of dugongs at Shark Bay, Western Australia II. Surface and subsurface observations. Aust Wildlife Res 9:85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson PK (1982b) Studies of dugongs at Shark Bay, Western Australia I. Analysis of population size, composition, dispersion and habitat use on the basis of aerial survey. Aust Wildlife Res 9:69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson PK (1984) Dugong. In: Macdonald D (ed) The encyclopedia of mammals. Facts on File, New York, pp 298–299Google Scholar
  9. Anderson PK (1998) Shark Bay dugongs (Dugong dugon) in summer: II. Foragers in a Halodule-dominated community. Mammalia 62:409–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anderson PK, Birtles A (1978) Behaviour and ecology of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia): observations in Shoalwater and Cleveland Bays, Queensland. Aust Wildlife Res 5:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aragones LV, Lawler IR, Foley WJ, Marsh H (2006) Dugong grazing and turtle cropping: grazing optimization in tropical seagrass systems? Oecologia 149:635–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bakker ES, Pagès JF, Arthur R, Alcoverro (2016a) Assessing the role of large herbivores in the structuring and functioning of freshwater and marine angiosperm ecosystems. Ecography 39:162–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bakker ES, Wood KA, Pagès JF, Veen GF, Christianen MJA, Santamaría L, Bart A, Nolet BA, Hilt S (2016b) Herbivory on freshwater and marine macrophytes: a review and perspective. Aquat Bot 135:18–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnett C, Johns D (1976) Underwater observations of dugong in northern Queensland, Australia, with notes on dugong hunting and recommendations for future research. In: FAO scientific consultation on marine mammals, advisory committee on marine resources research, Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  15. Batista VS, Fabré N, Malhado ACM, Ladle RJ (2014) Tropical artisanal coastal fisheries: challenges and future directions. Rev Fisheries Sci Aquaculture 22(1). Scholar
  16. Bertram GCL (1974) Conservation of Sirenia. Current status and perspectives for action. IUCN Occas Paper 12:1–120Google Scholar
  17. Bertram GCL, Bertram CKR (1970a) The dugongs of Ceylon. Loris 12:53–55Google Scholar
  18. Bertram GCL, Bertram CKR (1970b) Dugongs in Ceylon. Oryx 10:362–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bertram GCL, Bertram CKR (1973) The modern Sirenia: their distribution and status. Biol J Linn Soc 5:297–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bessey C, Heithaus MR, Fourqurean JW, Gastrich KR, Burkholder DA (2016) Importance of teleost macrograzers to seagrass composition in a subtropical ecosystem with abundant populations of megagrazers and predators. Marine Ecology Prog Ser 553:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Best RC (1981) Foods and feeding habits of wild and captive Sirenia. Mammal Rev 11:3–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bibby G (1970) Looking for Dilmun. Penguin, Middlesex, UK, pp 21–30Google Scholar
  23. Bode M (2009) The behaviour of Dugong dugon and the influence of tourism on the Dugong in Abu Dabab in Marsa Alam, a popular dive site in Egypt. Field report on BSc study. Georg-August University Göttingen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  24. Campbell RSF, Ladds PW (1981) Diseases of dugongs in northeastern Australia: a preliminary report. In: Marsh H (ed) The Dugong. Proceedings of seminar/workshop. James Cook University, North Queensland, pp 100–102Google Scholar
  25. Chilvers BL, Delean S, Gales NJ, Holley DK, Lawler IR, Marsh H, Preen AR (2004) Diving behaviour of dugongs, Dugong dugon. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 304:203–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chuenpagdee RA, Pauly DA (2008) Small is beautiful? A database approach for global assessment of small-scale fisheries: preliminary results and hypotheses. Am Fish Soc Symp 49(1):575Google Scholar
  27. Cleguer C (2015) Informing dugong conservation at several spatial and temporal scales in New Caledonia. Biodiversity and ecology. PhD thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France), James Cook University, Townsville (Australia)Google Scholar
  28. Collier C, Waycott M, McKenzie LJ (2012) Light thresholds derived from seagrass loss in the coastal zone of the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Ecol Ind 23:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cope RC, Pollett PK, Lanyon JM, Seddon JM (2015) Indirect detection of genetic dispersal (movement and breeding events) through pedigree analysis of dugong populations in southern Queensland, Australia. Biol Conserv 181:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crouch J, McNiven IJ, David B, Rowe C, Weisler MI (2007) Marine resource specialization and environmental change in Torres Strait during the past 4000 years. Archaeol Ocean 42:49–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cullen-Unsworth LC, Nordlund LM, Paddock J, McKenzie LJ, Unsworth RKF (2014) Seagrass meadows globally as a coupled social-ecological system: implications for human wellbeing. Marine Pollut Bull 83:387–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cullen-Unsworth LC, Jones BL, Seary R, Newman R, Unsworth RKF (2017, in press) Reasons for seagrass optimism: local ecological knowledge confirms presence of dugongs. Marine Pollut BullGoogle Scholar
  33. D’Souza E, Patankar V, Arthur R, Alcoverro T, Kelkar N (2013) Long-term occupancy trends in a data-poor dugong population in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. PLoS ONE 8:e76181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Iongh HH, Kiswara W, Kustiawan W, Loth PE (2007) A review of research on the interactions between dugongs (Dugong dugon Müller 1776) and intertidal seagrass beds in Indonesia. Hydrobiologia 591:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dentzien-Dias P, Carrillo-Briceño JD, Francischini H, Sánchez R (2018) Paleoecological and taphonomical aspects of the Late Miocene vertebrate coprolites (Urumaco Formation) of Venezuela. Paleogeog Paleoclimat Paleoecol 490:590–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Deutsch CJ, Reid JP, Bonde RK (2003) Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Wildlife Monogr 151:1–77Google Scholar
  37. Domning DP (1999) Sirenia. In: Maglio VJ, Cooke HBS (eds) Evolution of African mammals. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 573–581Google Scholar
  38. Ebrahim A, Olds AD, Maxwell PS, Pitt KA, Burfeind DD, Connolly RM (2014) Herbivory in a subtropical seagrass ecosystem: separating the functional role of different grazers. Marine Ecol Prog Ser 511:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. El Shaffai A (2011) Studies on the seagrass ecosystems in ‘Wadi El Gemal National Park’, Red Sea. MSc thesis, Suez Canal University, IsmailiaGoogle Scholar
  40. El Shaffai A (2016) Field Guide to Seagrasses of the Red Sea. In: Rouphael A, Abdulla A (eds) IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and total foundation. Courbevoie, France, 2nd edn. 56 pGoogle Scholar
  41. FAO (1979) Mammals in the sea. Pinniped species summaries and report on sirenians in cooperation with UNEP. FAO Fisheries 5(2):151Google Scholar
  42. Fox DL (1999) Dugong dugon: information. Animal diversity web. University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyGoogle Scholar
  43. Gales N, Mccauley RD, Lanyon JM, Holley D (2004) Change in abundance of dugongs in Shark Bay, Ningaloo and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia: evidence for large-scale migration. Wildlife Res 31:283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gaskin DE (1982) The ecology of whales and dolphins. Heinemann, London, p 459Google Scholar
  45. Gladstone W (2000) Ecological and social basis for management of a Red Sea marine protected area. Ocean Coast Manag 43:1015–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gohar HAF (1957) The Red Sea dugong. Publ Marine Biol Station Al Ghardaqa 9:3–49Google Scholar
  47. Grech A, Marsh H (2007) Prioritising areas for dugong conservation in a marine protected area using a spatially explicit population model. Appl GIS 3:1–14Google Scholar
  48. Grech A, Marsh H (2008) Rapid assessment of risks to a mobile marine mammal in an ecosystem-scale marine protected area. Conserv Biol 22(3):711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gredzens C, Marsh H, Fuentes MM, Limpus CJ, Shimada T, Hamann M (2014) Satellite tracking of sympatric marine megafauna can inform the biological basis for species co-management. PLoS ONE 9(6):e98944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Selkoe KA, Kappel CV, Micheli F, D’Agrosa C, Bruno JF, Casey KS, Ebert C, Fox HE, Fujita R, Heinemann D, Lenihan HS, Madin EMP, Perry MT, Selig ER, Spalding M, Steneck R, Watson R (2008) A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:948–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hanafy M, Gheny MA, Rouphael AB, Salam A, Fouda A (2006) The dugong, Dugong dugon, in Egyptian waters: distribution, relative abundance and threats. Zool Middle East 39(1):17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harris M, King RJ, Ellis J (1980) The eelgrass Zostera capricomi in Illawarra Lake, New South Wales. Proc Linn Soc NSW 104:23–33Google Scholar
  53. Hartman DS (1979) Ecology and behaviour of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida. Am Soc Mammalogists Spec Publ 5:1–153Google Scholar
  54. Heinsohn GE (1972) A study of dugongs (Dugong dugon) in northern Queensland, Australia. Biol Conserv 4(3):205–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Heinsohn GE, Birch WR (1972) Foods and feeding habits of the dugong, Dugong dugon, in northern Queensland, Australia. Mammalia 36(3):414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Heinsohn GE, Spain AV (1974) Effects of a tropical cyclone on littoral and sub-littoral biotic communities and on a population of dugongs (Dugong dugon (Muller)). Biol Cons 6:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Heinsohn GE, Wake J (1976) The importance of the Fraser Island region to dugongs. Paper presented to the ACMRR (FAO) scientific consultation on the conservation and management of marine mammals and their environment. Bergen, Norway, 31 August–9 September 1976. Rome, FAO, ACMRR/MM/SC/WG4.11. Operculum 5(1):15–8Google Scholar
  58. Hill WCO (1945) Notes on the dissection of the dugongs. J Mammal 26:153–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hines E, Reynolds J, Mignucci A, Aragones L, Marmontel M (eds) (2012) Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries. University of Florida Press, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  60. Hobbs JPA, Willshaw K (2015) Unusual behavior and habitat use of a solitary male dugong inhabiting coral reefs at the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Marine Biodivers. Scholar
  61. Hodgson AJ (2004) Dugong behaviour and responses to human influences. PhD thesis, James Cook University, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  62. Hodgson A, Kelly N, Peel D (2013) Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study. PLoS ONE 8(11):e79556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hossain MS, Bujang SJ, Zakaria MH, Hashim M (2016) Marine and human habitat mapping for the coral triangle initiative region of Sabah using landsat and Google earth imagery. Marine Policy 72:176–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Husar SL (1975) A review of the literature of the Dugong (Dugong dugon). Paper presented to the ACMRR (FAO) scientific consultation on the conservation and management of marine mammals and their environment. Bergen, Norway, 31 August–9 September 1976. Rome, FAO, ACMRR/MM/SC/WG4.2. US Dept Int Fish Wildl Serv Rept 4, 30 pGoogle Scholar
  65. Husar SL (1978) Dugong dugon. Mammalian species. Am Soc Mammal 88:1–7Google Scholar
  66. Ichikawa K, Tsutsumi C, Arai N, Akamatsu T, Shinke T, Hara T, Adulyanukosol K (2006) Dugong (Dugong dugon) vocalization patterns recorded by automatic underwater sound monitoring systems. J Acoustical Soc Am 119(6):3726–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. IUCN/MEPA (1984) Report on the distribution of natural habitats and species in the Saudi Red Sea. Saudi Arabia Marine conservation programme 4(1/2), 274 pGoogle Scholar
  68. IUCN/MEPA (1987) Red Sea, Saudi Arabia: an analysis of coastal and marine habitats of the Red Sea. MEPA coastal and marine management Series. Report no 1, 250 pGoogle Scholar
  69. IUCN/UNEP (1985) Management and conservation of renewable marine resources in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden region. UNEP regional seas reports studies no 64, 83 pGoogle Scholar
  70. Jarman PJ (1966) The status of the dugong (Dugong dugon Muller); Kenya, 1961. East African Wildl J 4:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jones S (1967) The Dugong—its present status in the seas round India with observations on its behaviour in captivity. Internat Zool Yearbook 7:215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jonklass R (1961) Some observations on Dugongs (Dugong dugon Erxleben). Loris 9:1–8Google Scholar
  73. KendricK GA, Waycott M, Carruthers TJB, Cambridge MI, Hovey R, Krauss SI, Lavery PS, Les DH, Lowe JR, Vidal OMI, Ooi JIS, Orth RJ, Rivers OD, Montoya LR, Sinclair EA, Statton J, Dijk JKV, Verduin JJ (2012) The central role of dispersal in the maintenance and persistence of seagrass populations. Bioscience 62:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kenyon R, Poiner I (1987) Seagrass and cyclones in the western Gulf of Carpentaria. CSIRO Marine Laboratory Information Sheet, February 1987Google Scholar
  75. Ketten DR, Odell DK, Domning DP (1992) Structure, function, and adaptation of the manatee ear. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA, Supin AY (eds) Marine mammal sensory systems. Plenum Press, New York, pp 77–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Khalil AS (2010) Pressures, status and response to marine and coastal biodiversity in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Report to PERSGA in accordance with the contract “Compiling data and information for biodiversity outlook report in the Regional Seas” in accordance with the set of indicators developed by MCEB. Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaGoogle Scholar
  77. Kingdon J (1971) East African mammals, vol. 1. An Atlas of evolution in Africa. Academic Press, New York, 457 pGoogle Scholar
  78. Kwan D (2002) Towards a sustainable fishery for dugongs in Torres Strait: a contribution of empirical data and process. PhD thesis, James Cook UniversityGoogle Scholar
  79. Levy J, Prizzia R (2018) From data modeling to algorithmic modeling in the big data era: Water resources security in the Asia-Pacific Region under conditions of climate change. In: Masys AJ, Lin LSF (eds) Asia-pacific security challenges: managing black swans and persistent threats. Springer International Publishing, pp 197–220. Scholar
  80. Lipkin Y (1975) Food of the Red Sea dugong (Mammalia: Sirenia) from Sinai. Israel J Zool 24:81–98Google Scholar
  81. MacMillan L (1955) The dugong. Walkabout 21:17–20Google Scholar
  82. Maitland RN, Lawler IR, Sheppard JK (2006) Assessing the risk of boat strike on dugongs Dugong dugon at Burrum Heads, Queensland, Australia. Pac Conserv Biol 12:321–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marsh H (1980) Age determination of the Dugong, Dugong dugon (Müller) in northern Australia and its biological implications. Rept Internat Whaling Comm (3):181–201Google Scholar
  84. Marsh H (1986) The status of the Dugong in Torres Strait. In: Haines AK, Williams GC, Coates D (eds) Torres strait fisheries seminar. Port Moresby, 11–14 February 1985. Australian Govt Publish Service, Canberra, pp 53–76Google Scholar
  85. Marsh H (1995) The life history, pattern of breeding, and population dynamics of the dugong. In: O’Shea TJ (ed) Proc workshop on manatee population biology. U.S. Fish and wildlife service technical report, pp 75–83Google Scholar
  86. Marsh H (2002) Dugong: status report and action plans for countries and territories. UNEP/Earth print Nairobi, 162 pGoogle Scholar
  87. Marsh H (2008) Dugong dugon. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species v. 2012.2. [accessed 10 November 2012]
  88. Marsh H (2009) Dugong: Dugong dugon. In: Würsig B, Perrin W, Thewissen JGM (eds) Encyclopedia of Marine mammals, 2 edn. Academic Press, pp 332–335Google Scholar
  89. Marsh HD (2014) Family dugongidae (Dugong). In: Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA (eds) Handbook of the mammals of the world: 4: sea mammals. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain, pp 564–573 Google Scholar
  90. Marsh H, Lawler IR (2001) Dugong distribution and abundance in the Southern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Hervey Bay: results of an aerial survey in October–December 1999. Research Publication Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  91. Marsh H, Lawler IR (2002) Dugong distribution and abundance in the Northern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park—November 2000. GBRMPA Research Publication 77, Townsville.
  92. Marsh H, Lawler IR (2006) Dugong distribution and abundance in the Southern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Hervey Bay: results of an aerial survey in 2005. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  93. Marsh H, Kwan D (2008) Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: the likely role of seagrass dieback. Cont Shelf Res 28(16):2152–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Marsh H, Rathbun GB (1990) Development and application of conventional and satellite radio-tracking techniques for studying dugong movements and habitat usage. Aust Wildlife Res 17:83–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Marsh H, Sobtzick S (2015) Dugong dugon. IUCN Red list of threatened species.
  96. Marsh H, Heinsohn GE, Channells PW (1984a) Changes in the ovaries and uterus of the Dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia: dugongidae), with age and reproductive activity. Aust J Zool 32:743–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Marsh H, Heinsohn GE, Glover TD (1984b) Changes in the male reproductive organs of the Dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia: dugongidae), with age and reproductive activity. Aust J Zool 32:721–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Marsh H, Heinsohn GE, Marsh LM (1984c) Breeding cycle, life history and population dynamics of the Dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia: dugongidae). Aust J Zool 32:767–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Marsh H, Heinsohn GE, Marsh LM (1984d) Life history, breeding cycle and population dynamics of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia, Dugongidae). Aust J Zoology 32:767–788Google Scholar
  100. Marsh H, O’Shea TJ, Reynolds JE (2012) Ecology and conservation of the Sirenia: dugongs and Manatees. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p 521Google Scholar
  101. Marsh H, Chanells PW, Heinsohn GE, Morrissey J (1982) Analysis of stomach contents of dugongs from Queensland. Aust Wildl Res 9:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Marsh H, De’ath G, Gribble N, Lane B (2001) Shark control records hindcast serious decline in dugong numbers off the urban coast of Queensland. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority/James Cook UniversityGoogle Scholar
  103. Marsh H, Penrose H, Eros C, Hugues J (2002a) Dugong: status report and action plans for countries and territories. UNEP early warning assessment report series, vol 1Google Scholar
  104. Marsh H, Penrose H, Eros C, Hugues J (2002b) The Dugong (Dugong dugon) status reports and action plans for countries and territories in its range. Final report, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  105. Marsh H, Prince RIT, Saalfeld WK, Shepherd R (1994) The distribution and abundance of dugongs in Shark Bay. Wildlife Res 21:149–161Google Scholar
  106. McNiven IJ, Bedingfield AC (2008) Past and present marine mammal hunting rates and abundances: Dugong (Dugong dugon) evidence from Dabangai Bone Mound, Torres Strait. J Archaeol Sci 35(2):505–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Méry S, Charpentier V, Auxiette G, Pelle E (2009) A Neolithic ritual site in Umm al-Quwain, United Arab Emirates: the dugong bone mound of Akab. Antiquity 83:696–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mitchell J (1973) Determination of relative age in the dugong Dugong dugon (Müller) from a study of skulls and teeth. Zool J Linnean Soc 53:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mizuno K, Asada A, Matsumoto Y, Sugimoto K, Fujii T, Yamamuro M, Fortes MD, Sarceda M, Jimenez LA (2017) A simple and efficient method for making a high-resolution seagrass map and quantification of dugong feeding trail distribution: a field test at Mayo Bay, Philippines. Ecol Inform 38:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Moore JE, Cox TM, Lewison RL, Read AJ, Bjorkl R, McDonald SL, Crowder LB, Aruna E, Ayissi I, Espeut P, Joynson-Hicks C, Pilcher N, Poonian CNS, Solarin B, Kiszka J (2010) An interview-based approached to assess marine mammal and sea turtle captures in artisanal fisheries. Biol Conserv 143:795–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Moore AM, Ambo-Rappe R, Ali Y (2017) “The Lost Princess (putri duyung)” of the Small Islands: dugongs around Sulawesi in the Anthropocene. Frontiers Marine Sci 4:284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Muir C, Kiszka J (2012) East African dugongs. In: Hines E, Reynolds J, Mignucci-Giannoni A, Aragones L, Marmonental M (eds) Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries. University Press of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  113. Nishiwaki M, Marsh H (1985) Dugong: Dugong dugon (Muller, 1776). In: Ridgway SH, Harrison R (eds) Handbook of marine mammals, vol 3. Academic Press, London, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  114. Nishiwaki M, Kasuya T, Miyazaki N, Tobayama T, Kataoka T (1979) Present distribution of the Dugong in the world. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst 3:133–141Google Scholar
  115. O’Connell CP, de Jonge VN (2014) Integrating the findings from this special issue and suggestions for future conservation efforts: a brief synopsis. Ocean Coast Manag 97:58–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ormond RFG (1976) The Red Sea. Promotion of the establishment of marine parks and reserves in the northern Indian Ocean including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. IUCN Publications New Series no 35, pp 115–123Google Scholar
  117. Ormond RFG (1978) Requirements and progress in marine conservation in the Red Sea. In: Gamble JC, Yorke RA (eds) Progress in underwater science, vol 3. Pentech, London, pp 167–176Google Scholar
  118. Parsons MJG, Holley D, McCauley RD (2013) Source levels of Dugong (Dugong dugon) vocalizations recorded in Shark Bay. J Acoust Soc Am 134(3):2582–2588. Scholar
  119. Peres JM, Picard J (1975) Causes de la rarefaction et de la disparition des herbiers, de Posidonia oceanica sur les cotes Francaises de la Mediterranee. Aquatic Bot 1:133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. PERSGA (2006) State of marine environment in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. PERSGA, JeddahGoogle Scholar
  121. PERSGA (2016) Guideline for planning and management of Marine Protected Areas using mapping techniques. Report prepared for PERSGA through Component 1 of the GEF/World Bank project “Strategic Ecosystem Management (SEM) of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden”, PERSGA, JeddahGoogle Scholar
  122. PERSGA/GEF (2001) Strategic action programme for the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Country Reports. PERSGA, Jeddah, and World Bank, Washington, 205 pGoogle Scholar
  123. PERSGA/GEF (2003) Coral Reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Surveys 1990 to 2000: summary and recommendations. PERSGA technical series no 7, PERSGA, JeddahGoogle Scholar
  124. PERSGA/GEF (2004) Survey of the proposed marine protected area at Dungonab Bay and Mukawwar Island, Sudan. Report for PERSGA, JeddahGoogle Scholar
  125. Philip Prince (Duke of Edinburgh), Fisher J (1970) Wildlife Crisis. Cowles Book Co, New York, 256 pGoogle Scholar
  126. Pilcher N, Nasr D (2003) The status of coral reefs in Sudan. In: Coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Surveys 1990–2000: summary and recommendations. PERSGA technical series no. 7, PERSGA, JeddahGoogle Scholar
  127. Pilcher NJ, Adulyanukosol K, Das H, Davis P, Hines E, Kwan D (2017) A low-cost solution for documenting distribution and abundance of endangered marine fauna and impacts from fisheries. PLoS ONE 12(12):e0190021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ponnampalarm L, Adulyanukosol K, Ooi JLS (2014) Aligning conservation and research priorities for proactive species and habitat management: the case of dugongs Dugong dugon in Johor, Malaysia. Oryx, 7 p. Scholar
  129. Preen A (1989) The status and conservation of dugongs in the Arabian region. MEPA report no 10, 200 pGoogle Scholar
  130. Preen AR (1992) Interactions between dugongs and seagrasses in a subtropical environment. PhD thesis. James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  131. Preen A (1995) Impacts of dugong foraging on seagrass habitats: observational and experimental evidence for cultivation grazing. Marine Ecol Prog Ser 124:201–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Preen A (2004a) Marine Mammals. In: Standard survey methods for key habitats and key species in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. PERSGA technical series, PERSGA, Jeddah, 10:267–309Google Scholar
  133. Preen A (2004b) Distribution, abundance and conservation status of dugongs and dolphins in the southern and western Arabian Gulf. Biol Conserv 118:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rajamani L (2009) The conservation biology of the Dugong (Dugong dugon) and its seagrass habitat in Sabah, Malaysia: a basis for conservation planning. PhD thesis, Malaysia Sabah UniversityGoogle Scholar
  135. Read AJ (2008) The looming crisis: interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. J Mammal 89(3):541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Read AJ, Drinker P, Northridge S (2006) Bycatch of marine mammals in US and global fisheries. Conserv Biol 20(1):163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Reynolds JE (1981) Aspects of the social behaviour and herd structure of a semiisolated colony of West Indian manatees, Trichechus manatus. Mammalia 45:431–451Google Scholar
  138. Robards MD, Reeves RR (2011) The global extent and character of marine mammal consumption by humans: 1970–2009. Biol Conserv 144(12):2770–2786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Robineau D (1969) Morphologie externe du complexe osseux temporal chez les sirinens. Mémoire du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris). Ser A Zool 60:1–32Google Scholar
  140. Robineau D, Rose JM (1982) Le Dugong (Dugong dugon (Muller, 1776) Sirenia, dugongidae) en Republique de Djibouti. Biol Conserv 24:233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rouphael T, Abdulla A, Attum O, Marshall N, Ghazali U (2013) Do marine protected areas in the Red Sea afford protection to dugongs and sea turtles? J Biodivers Endanger Species 1:1–6Google Scholar
  142. Seddon JM, Ovenden J, Sneath H, Broderick D, Dudgeon C, Lanyon J (2014) Fine scale population structure of dugongs (Dugong dugon) implies low gene flow along the southern Queensland coastline. Conserv Genet 15(6):1381–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Shawky AM (2018) Ecological and behavioural studies on the Dugong Dugong dugon inhabiting Marsa Alam Egyptian Red Sea. Unpublished PhD thesis, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  144. Shawky AM, Sallam WS, Alwany MA, Mohammad DA, Mohamed SZ (2016) Stranding of a neonatal dugong calf in Wadi El Gemal National Park: implications for Dugong conservation in Egypt. Al Azhar Bull Sci 27(2):1–11Google Scholar
  145. Shawky AM, Sallam WS, Alwany MA, Mohammad DA, Mohamed SZ (2018, in press) Photo identification of Dugongs in Marsa Alam and Wadi El Gemal National Park, western Egyptian coast of the Red SeaGoogle Scholar
  146. Sheppard JK (2008) The Spatial Ecology of Dugongs: applications to Conservation Management. PhD thesis, James Cook University, Townsville (Australia)Google Scholar
  147. Sheppard C, Price A, Roberts C (1992) Marine ecology of the Arabian region: patterns and processes in extreme tropical environments. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  148. Sheppard JK, Preen AR, Marsh H, Lawler I, Whiting S, Jones R (2006) Movement heterogeneity of dugongs, Dugong dugon (Müller), over large spatial scales. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 344:64–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sheppard JK, Marsh H, Jones RE, Lawler IR (2010) Dugong habitat use in relation to seagrass nutrients, tides and diel cycles. Marine Mammal Sci 26(4):855–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sobtzick S, Hagihara R, Grech A, Marsh H (2012) Aerial survey of the urban coast of Queensland to evaluate the response of the dugong population to the widespread effects of the extreme weather events of the summer of 2010–11. Final report to the Australian marine mammal centre and the national environmental research program. Reef and Rainforest Research Centre Ltd., Cairns, 62 pGoogle Scholar
  151. Spain AV, Heinsohn GE (1973) Cyclone associated feeding changes in the dugong (Mammalia: Sirenia). Mammalia 37(4):678–680Google Scholar
  152. Spiegelberger T, Ganslosser U (2005) Habitat analysis and exclusive bank feeding of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758) in the Coswine Swamps of French Guiana, South America. Trop Zool 18:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Tanaka K, Ichikawa K, Nishizawa H, Kittiwattanawong K, Arai N, Mitamura H (2017) Differences in vocalisation patterns of dugongs between fine-scale habitats around Talibong Island. Acoust Aust, Thailand. Scholar
  154. Thornback J, Jenkins M (1982) Dugong, Dugong dugon (Muller 1776) Order Sirenia, family dugongidae. In: Thornback J, Jenkins M (eds) IUCN mammal Red Data book, part 1. Gland, Switzerland, pp 417–427Google Scholar
  155. Tol SJ, Coles RG, Congdon CB (2016) Dugong dugon feeding in tropical Australian seagrass meadows: implications for conservation planning. PeerJ 4:e2194. Scholar
  156. Travis W (1967) The voice of the turtle. Allen and Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  157. Troughton EL (1947) Furred animals of Australia. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, p 374Google Scholar
  158. Tsutsumi C, Ichikawa K, Arai N, Akamatsu T, Shinke T, Hara T, Adulyanukosol K (2006) Feeding behavior of wild dugongs monitored by a passive acoustical method. J Acoust Soc Am 120(3):1356–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Vine PJ (1986) Pearls in Arabian Waters. Immel Publishing, London, p 59Google Scholar
  160. Wake J (1975) A study of habitat requirements and feeding biology of the Dugong, Dugong dugon, (Muller). BSc thesis, James Cook University, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  161. Weigle B, Wright IE, Ross M, Flamm R (2001) Movements of radio-tagged manatees in Tampa Bay and along Florida’s west coast 1991–1996. Technical Report TR-7/ISSN 1092-194X, St. Petersburg, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  162. Whiting SD (2002) Dive times for foraging dugongs in the Northern Territory. Aust Mammal 23:167–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wirsing AJ, Heithaus RM (2012) Behavioural transition probabilities in dugongs change with habitat and predator presence: implications for sirenian conservation. Marine Freshwater Res 63:1069–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wirsing AJ, Heithaus MR, Dill LM (2007) Can you dig it? Use of excavation, a risky foraging tactic, by dugongs is sensitive to predation danger. Anim Behav 74:1085–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Woinarski JC, Burbidge AA, Harrison PL (2014) A review of the conservation status of Australian mammals. Therya 6(1):155–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wongsuryrat M, Chunkao K, Prabuddham P, Daungsavat M (2011) Distribution, abundance and conservation status of dugong around Koh Talibong, Trang Province, Thailand. J Sustain Dev 3(4):118–124Google Scholar
  167. Wycherley PR (1969) Conservation in Malaysia. IUCN Publ, suppl paper 22, pp 113–114Google Scholar
  168. Young PC, Kirkman H (1975) The seagrass communities of Moreton Bay, Queensland. Aquatic Bot 1:191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Zieman JC, Orth R, Phillips RC, Thayer G, Thorhaug A (1984) The effects of oil on seagrass ecosystems. In: Cairns J, Buikema AL (eds) Restoration and management of marine ecosystems impacted by oil. Butterworth, Boston, pp 37–64Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Red Sea UniversityPort SudanSudan
  2. 2.Ministry of EnvironmentEgyptian Environmental Affairs AgencyCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Earth and Ocean Sciences, School of Natural SciencesNUI GalwayGalwayIreland

Personalised recommendations