Advertisement

Rifting and Salt Deposition on Continental Margins: Differences and Similarities Between the Red Sea and the South Atlantic Sedimentary Basins

  • Webster Mohriak
Chapter

Abstract

The results of regional deep seismic acquisition in the South Atlantic continental margins provide new constraints on the birth and development of sedimentary basins formed during the Gondwana breakup. The interpretation of these seismic profiles integrated with gravity and magnetic potential field data suggest alternative models for the birth of oceanic basins that evolve from an earlier phase of intracontinental rift, salt deposition and continental breakup by mantle exhumation or by development of oceanic spreading centres preceded by igneous intrusions and extrusions in the transition from continental to oceanic crust. The analysis of regional deep-penetrating seismic profiles in the South Atlantic and Red Sea, integrated with potential field methods and plate reconstructions, provides a template for the interpretation of the tectono-sedimentary features that are characterized from the proximal rifts onshore and in the platform. Basinward, more elusive features are characterized toward the transitional and oceanic crust in divergent margins. This work discusses alternative interpretations for syn-rift successions and salt distribution in regional seismic profiles from the Red Sea, which have been integrated with results of wells that penetrated the stratigraphic section below the evaporites in a few exploratory wells along the Arabian and African conjugate margins. These interpretations can be compared with similar tectono-stratigraphic settings in the South Atlantic, which are constrained by several exploratory wells that penetrated the syn-rift sequence in both shallow and deep waters. The temporal development of syn-rift structures, magmatism, salt deposition, oceanic propagators and development of the divergent margins suggest that the Red Sea constitutes a better analogue for the development of the South Atlantic divergent continental margins than the Iberian margin.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to thank several geoscientists at PETROBRAS—Petroleo Brasileiro S. A. for enlightening discussions and participation in previous projects conducted in the 2000’s, which focused on the geology of the Red Sea and the analogies with petroleum systems and exploratory plays in the South Atlantic. I am also grateful to many colleagues and students at UERJ—State University of Rio de Janeiro for providing suggestions and improvements for this work, particularly S. Wischer who revised the text of an earlier draft. The Red Sea Team at Saudi Aramco provided a unique opportunity to participate in a field trip in the Midyan Basin in 2013, and I enjoyed working with the large regional dataset offshore Saudi Arabia.

The AAPG Distinguished Lecturer Program is also thanked for their invitation to participate in the 2014 program and present the summary of the chapter included in the book “Conjugate Divergent Margins”, published by the Geological Society of London in 2013. I am grateful to the Saudi Geological Survey staff for the organization of the Jeddah meeting in early 2016, which was very well organized and integrated several branches of science in the search for a better understanding of the geological, biological and anthropogenic backgrounds of the Red Sea. Dr. Najeeb Rasul and Dr. Ian Stewart had key roles in the conference logistics and also helped in the preparation of the book chapters. Special thanks are owed to N. Augustin for kindly providing high-resolution bathymetric data on the Mabahiss Deep and to M. Ligi for technical discussions on the Red Sea geology. The final review of this contribution was provided by Ian Davison, Michael R. Hudec and Nickolas Raterman. I greatly appreciated their enlightening comments on key concepts and constructive suggestions that helped to substantially improve the scientific content and clarity of the text.

References

  1. Afifi AM, Tapponnier P, Raterman NS (2014) The Messinian unconformity in the Red Sea: evidence for widespread dessication? AAPG search and discovery article 90188, GEO-2014. In: 11th Middle east geosciences conference and exhibition, March 2014, Manama, Bahrain, pp 10–12Google Scholar
  2. Allen J, Beaumont C (2015) Continental margin syn-rift salt tectonics at intermediate width margins. Basin Res 27:1–36.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almalki KA, Betts PG, Ailleres L (2014) Episodic sea-floor spreading in the southern Red Sea. Tectonophysics 617:140–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2014.01.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almalki KA, Betts PG, Ailleres L (2015a) The Red Sea—50 years of geological and geophysical research. Earth-Sci Rev 147:109–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Almalki KA, Ailleres L, Betts PG, Bantan RA (2015b) Evidence for and relationship between recent distributed extension and halokinesis in the Farasan Islands, southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Arabian J Geosci 8:8753–8766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Almeida J, Dios F, Mohriak WU, Valeriano CM, Heilbron M, Eirado LG, Tomazzoli E (2013) Pre-rift tectonic scenario of the eo-cretaceous Gondwana break-up along SE Brazil–SW Africa: insights from tholeiitic mafic dyke swarms. In: Mohriak WU, Danforth A, Post PJ, Brown DE, Tari GC, Nemcok M, Sinha ST (eds) Conjugate divergent margins, vol 369. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, pp 11–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alsharhan AS, Salah MG (1997) A common source rock for Egyptian and Saudi hydrocarbons in the Red Sea. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 81(10):1640–1659Google Scholar
  8. Alvarenga RS, Iacopini D, Kuchle J, Scherer CMS, Goldberg K (2016) Seismic characteristics and distribution of hydrothermal vent complexes in the cretaceous offshore rift section of the Campos Basin, offshore Brazil. Marine Petrol Geol 74:12–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Antonini P, Petrini R, Contin G (1998) A segment of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea: Basalts from the Nereus deep (23o00’–23o20’N). J African Earth Sci 27:107–l14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Augustin N, Devey CW, van der Zwan FM, Feldens P, Tominaga M, Bantan RA, Kwasnitschka T (2014) The rifting to spreading transition in the Red Sea. Earth Planet Sci Lett 395:217–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Augustin N, Zwan FM, Devey CW, Ligi M, Kwasnitschka T, Feldens P, Bantan RA, Basaham AS (2016) Geomorphology of the central Red Sea Rift: determining spreading processes. Geomorphology 274:162–179.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.08.028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baker J, Snee L, Menzies M (1996) A brief Oligocene period of flood volcanism in Yemen: implications for the duration and rate of continental flood volcanism at the Afro-Arabian triple junction. Earth Planet Sci Lett 138:39–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Balmino G, Vales N, Bonvalot S, Briais A (2012) Spherical harmonic modeling to ultra-high degree of Bouguer and isostatic anomalies. J Geodesy 86:499–520.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-011-0533-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bayer HJ, El-Isa Z, Hotzl H, Mechie J, Prodehl C, Saffarini G (1989) Large tectonic and lithospheric structures of the Red Sea region. J African Earth Sci 8:565–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beglinger SE, Doust H, Cloetingh S (2012) Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: Brazilian South Atlantic margin. Petrol Geosci 18:315–336.  https://doi.org/10.1144/1354-079311-022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benson RN, Doyle RG (1988) Early Mesozoic rift basins and the development of the United States middle Atlantic continental margin. In: Manspeizer W (ed) Triassic-Jurassic rifting—continental breakup and the origin of the Atlantic ocean and passive margins, vol 22. Development in Geotectonics. Elsevier Science Publishers BV, Chapter 5, pp 99–127Google Scholar
  17. Berman A (2008) Three super-giant fields discovered in Brazil’s Santos Basin. World Oil 23–24Google Scholar
  18. Beydoun ZR (1989) The hydrocarbon prospects of the Red Sea—Gulf of Aden: a review. J Petrol Geol 12:125–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Blaich OA, Faleide JI, Tsikalas F (2011) Crustal breakup and continent-ocean transition at South Atlantic conjugate margins. J Geophys Res 116:B01402.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JB007686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blank HR, Andreasen GE (1991) Compilation and interpretation of aeromagnetic data for the Precambrian Arabian shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabian Directorate General of Mineral Resources Open-File Report USGS-OF-10-8, 54 pGoogle Scholar
  21. Blank HR (1977) Aeromagnetic and geological study of Tertiary dikes and related structures on the Arabian margin of the Red Sea. In: Saudi Arabian directorate general of mineral resources, Red Sea research 1970–1975, Bulletin 22:G1–18Google Scholar
  22. Boillot G, Grimaud S, Mauffret A, Mougenot D, Kornprobst J, Mergoil-Daniel J, Torrent G (1980) Ocean-continent boundary off the Iberian margin: a serpentinite diapir west of the Galicia bank. Earth Planet Sci Lett 48:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boillot G, Winterer EL, Meyer AW et al (1987) Proc ODP, initial reports 103. College station, TX (Ocean drilling program).  https://doi.org/10.2973/odp.proc.ir.103.1987
  24. Bonatti E (1985) Punctiform initiation of seafloor spreading in the Red Sea during transition from a continental to an oceanic rift. Nature 316:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bonatti E, Seyler M (1987) Crustal underplating and evolution in the Red Sea rift: uplifted gabbro/gneiss crustal complexes on Zabargad and Brothers Islands. J Geophys Res 92:12803–12821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bonatti E, Cipriani A, Lupi L (2015) The Red Sea: birth of an Ocean. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: the formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a Young Ocean Basin. Springer Earth System Sciences. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 29–44.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45201-1Google Scholar
  27. Bonatti E, Clocchiatti R, Colantoni P, Gelmini R, Marinelli G, Ottonello G, Santacroce R, Taviani M, Abdel-Meguid AA, Assaf HS, Tahir MA (1983) Zabargad (St. John’s) Island: an uplifted fragment of sub-Red Sea lithosphere. J Geol Soc London 140:677–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bonatti E, Colantoni P, Vedova BD, Taviani M (1984) Geology of the Red Sea transitional region (22oN–25oN). Oceanol Acta 7:385–398Google Scholar
  29. Bonattti E, Hamlyn P, Ottonello G (1981) Upper mantle beneath a young oceanic rift: peridotites from the Island of Zabargad (Red Sea). Geology 9:474–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bosworth W (2015) Geological evolution of the Red Sea: historical background, review, and synthesis. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: the formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 45–78.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45201-1_3Google Scholar
  31. Bosworth W, McClay K (2001) Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Gulf of Suez Rift, Egypt: a synthesis. In: Ziegler PA, Cavazza W, Robertson AHF, Crasquin-Soleau S (eds) Peri-Tethys Memoir 6: Peri-Tethyan Rift/Wrench basins and passive margins, vol 186. Memoires du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, pp 567–606Google Scholar
  32. Bosworth W, Huchon P, McClay K (2005) The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden basins. J African Earth Sci 43:334–378Google Scholar
  33. Braun J, Beaumont C (1989) A physical explanation of the relation between flank uplifts and the breakup unconformity at rifted continental margins. Geology 17:760–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cainelli C, Mohriak WU (1998) Geology of Atlantic Eastern Brazilian basins. In: 1998 AAPG international conference & exhibition short course—Brazilian geology Part II, 8–11 November 1998, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 67 pGoogle Scholar
  35. Carminatti M, Dias JL, Wolf B (2009) From turbidites to carbonates: breaking paradigms in deep waters. OTC, Abstract Volume, OTC-20124, 7 pGoogle Scholar
  36. Cochran JR (1983) A model for development of Red Sea. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 67:41–69Google Scholar
  37. Cochran JR, Karner GD (2007) Constraints on the deformation and rupturing of continental lithosphere of the Red Sea: the transition from rifting to drifting. In: Karner GD, Manatschal G, Pinheiro LM (eds) Imaging, mapping and modelling continental lithosphere extension and breakup, vol 282. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, pp 265–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Colombo D, McNeice G, Raterman N, Zinger M, Rovetta D, Curiel ES (2014) Exploration beyond seismic: the role of electromagnetics and gravity gradiometry in deep water subsalt plays of the Red Sea. Interpretation 2:SH33–SH53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Corti G, Bastow ID, Keir D, Pagli C, Baker E (2015) Rift-related morphology of the Afar depression. In: Billi P (ed) Landscapes and landforms of Ethiopia. World Geomorphological Landscapes Series. Springer, Chapter 15, pp 251–274.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8026-1_15Google Scholar
  40. Courtillot VE (1982) Propagating rifts and continental breakup. Tectonics 1:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Davison I (1999) Tectonics and hydrocarbon distribution along the Brazilian South Atlantic margin. In: Cameron NR, Bate RH, Clure VS (eds) The oil and gas habitats of the South Atlantic, vol 153. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, pp 133–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davison I (2007) Geology and tectonics of the South Atlantic Brazilian salt basins. In: Ries AC, Butler RWH, Graham, RH (eds) Deformation of the continental crust: the legacy of Mike Coward, vol 272. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, pp 345–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Davison I, Al-Kadasi M, Al-Khirbash S, Al-Subbary A, Baker J, Blakey S, Bosence D, Dart C, Heaton R, McClay K, Menzies M, Nichols G, Owen L, Yelland A (1994) Geological evolution of the southeastern Red Sea rift margin: Republic of Yemen. Geol Soc Am Bull 106:1474–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dehler NM, Magnavita LP, Gomes LC, Rigoti CA, Oliveira JAB, Sant’Anna M, Costa FGD (2016) The ‘Helmut’ geophysical anomaly: a regional left-lateral transtensional shear zone system connecting Santos and Campos basins, southeastern Brazil. Marine Petrol Geol 72:412–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Demercian LS, Szatmari P, Cobbold PR (1993) Style and pattern of salt diapirs due to thin-skinned gravitational gliding, Campos and Santos basins, offshore Brazil. Tectonophysics 228:393–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Duarte MS, Alves TM, Terrinha P (2012) The breakup sequence and associated lithospheric breakup surface: their significance in the context of rifted continental margins (West Iberia and Newfoundland margins, North Atlantic). Earth Planet Sci Lett 355–356:311–326Google Scholar
  47. Egloff F, Rihm R, Makris J, Izzeldin YA, Bobsien M, Meir K, Junge P, Noman T, Warsi W (1991) Contrasting structural styles of the eastern and western margins of the southern Red Sea: the 1988 SONNE experiment. Tectonophysics 198:329–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Esedo R, van Wijk J, Coblentz D, Meyer R (2012) Uplift prior to continental breakup: indication for removal of mantle lithosphere? Geosphere 8:1078–1085.  https://doi.org/10.1130/GES00748.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Esestime P, Hewitt A, Hodgson N (2016) Zohr—a newborn carbonate play in the Levantine Basin, East-Mediterranean. First Break 34:87–93Google Scholar
  50. Evain M, Afilhado A, Rigoti C, Loureiro A, Alves D, Klingelhoefer F, Schnurle P, Feld A, Fuck R, Soares J, Lima MV, Corela C, Matias L, Benabdellouahed M, Baltzer A, Rabineau M, Viana A, Moulin M, Aslanian D (2015) Deep structure of the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau system, SE Brazil. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 120:5401–5431.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JB011561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fainstein R, Krueger A (2005) Salt tectonics comparisons near the continent-ocean boundary escarpments. In: Post PJ, Rosen NC, Olson DL, Palmes SL, Lyons KT, Newton GB (eds) GCSSEPM 25th Annual Bob F. Perkins research conference: petroleum systems of divergent continental margin basins, Abstracts CD, pp 510–540Google Scholar
  52. Falvey DA (1974) The development of continental margins in plate tectonic theory. APEA J 14(1):95–106Google Scholar
  53. Franke D (2013) Rifting, lithosphere breakup and volcanism: comparison of magma-poor and volcanic rifted margins. Marine Petrol Geol 43:63–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gass IG, Mallick DJ, Cox KG (1973) Volcanic islands of the Red Sea. J Geol Soc London 29:275–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ghebreab W (1998) Tectonics of the Red Sea region reassessed. Earth-Sci Rev 45:1–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gomes BS (1992) Integração preliminar dos dados gravimetricos marítimos da Petrobras e do Projeto Leplac: Bacias de Campos, Santos e Pelotas. Anais do XXXVII Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, São Paulo, SP 1:559–560Google Scholar
  57. Gomes PO, Kilsdonk W, Grow T, Minken J, Barragan R (2012) Tectonic evolution of the outer high of Santos Basin, southern São Paulo Plateau, Brazil, and implications for hydrocarbon exploration. In: Gao D (ed) Tectonics and sedimentation: implications for petroleum systems. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Memoir 100:125–142Google Scholar
  58. Guardado LR, Gamboa LAP, Luchesi CF (1989) Petroleum geology of the Campos basin, a model for a producing Atlantic-type basin. In: Edwards JD, Santogrossi PA (eds) Divergent/Passive margin basins. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Memoir 48:3–79Google Scholar
  59. Guardado LR, Spadini AR, Brandão JSL, Mello MR (2000) Petroleum system of the Campos basin, Brazil. In: Mello MR, Katz BJ (eds) Petroleum systems of South Atlantic margins. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Memoir 73:317– 324Google Scholar
  60. Guennoc P, Pautot G, Leqentrec MF, Coutelle A (1990) Structure of an early oceanic rift in the northern Red Sea. Oceanol Acta 13:145–157Google Scholar
  61. Hadad YT, Abdullah WH (2015) Hydrocarbon source rock generative potential of the Sudanese Red Sea basin. Marine Petrol Geol 65:269–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hadad YT, Hakimi MH, Abdullah WH, Makeen YM (2016) Thermal maturity history reconstruction and hydrocarbon generation/expulsion modeling of the syn-rift Rudeis and Kareem source rocks in the Red Sea rift basin, Sudan. Arabian J Geosci 9:442, 17 p.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-016-2458-y
  63. Hall SA (1979) A total intensity magnetic anomaly map of the Red Sea and its interpretation. U.S. geological survey Saudi Arabian project report 275, Open File 80-131, 260 pGoogle Scholar
  64. Hartmann J, Moosdorf N (2012) The new global lithological map database GLiM: a representation of rock properties at the earth surface. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 13:Q12004.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GC004370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Heine C, Zoethourt J, Muller RD (2013) Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift. Solid Earth 4:215–253.  https://doi.org/10.5194/se-4-215-2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hinz K, Neben S, Schreckenberger B, Roeser HA, Block M, Souza KG, Meyer H (1999) The Argentine continental margin north of 48o S: sedimentary successions, volcanic activity during breakup. Marine Petrol Geol 16(1):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hosny A, Nyblade A (2014) Crustal structure in southeastern Egypt: symmetric thinning of the northern Red Sea rifted margins. Geology 42:219–222.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G34726.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hughes G, Johnson RS (2005) Lithostratigraphy of the Red Sea region. GeoArabia 10(3):49–126Google Scholar
  69. Jackson MPA, Cramez C, Fonck JM (2000) Role of subaerial volcanic rocks and mantle plumes in creation of South Atlantic margins: implications for salt tectonics and source rocks. Marine Petrol Geol 17:477–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jones CM, Chaves HAF (2015) Re-Assessment of yet-to-find oil in the pre-salt province of Brazil. In: 14th International congress of the Brazilian geophysical society, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 3–6, 2015, 6 pGoogle Scholar
  71. Karner GD (2000) Rifts of the Campos and Santos basin, southeastern Brazil: distribution and timing. In: Mello MR, Katz BJ (eds) Petroleum systems of South Atlantic margins. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Memoir 73:301–315Google Scholar
  72. Karner GD, Gambôa LAP (2007) Timing and origin of the South Atlantic pre-salt sag basins and their capping evaporites. In: Schreiber BC, Lugli S, Babel M (eds) Evaporites through space and time, vol 285. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, pp. 15–35Google Scholar
  73. Koopmann H, Schreckenberger B, Franke D, Becker K, Schnabel M (2014) The late rifting phase and continental break-up of the southern South Atlantic: the mode and timing of volcanic rifting and formation of earliest oceanic crust. In: Wright TJ, Ayele A, Ferguson DJ, Kidane T, Vye-Brown C (eds) Magmatic rifting and active volcanism, vol 420. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, pp 315–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP420.2
  74. Kumar N, Danforth A, Nuttall P, Helwig J, Bird DE, Venkatraman S (2012) From oceanic crust to exhumed mantle: a 40 year (1970–2010) perspective on the nature of crust under the Santos basin, SE Brazil. In: Mohriak WU, Danforth A, Post PJ, Brown DE, Tari GC, Nemcok M, Sinha ST (eds) Conjugate divergent margins, vol 369. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, pp 147–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP369.16
  75. Labrecque JL, Zitellini N (1985) Continuous sea-floor spreading in Red Sea: an alternative interpretation of magnetic anomaly pattern. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 69:513–524Google Scholar
  76. Lavier L, Manatschal G (2006) A mechanism to thin the continental lithosphere at magma-poor margins. Nature 440:324–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lazar M, Ben-Avraham Z, Garfunkel Z (2012) The Red Sea—new insights from recent geophysical studies and the connection to the Dead Sea fault. J African Earth Sci 68:96–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lentini MR, Fraser SI, Sumner HS, Davies RJ (2010) Geodynamics of the central South Atlantic conjugate margins: implications for hydrocarbon potential. Petrol Geosci 16:217–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Leroy S, Gente P, Fournier M, d’Acremont E, Patriat P, Beslier MO, Bellahsen N, Maia M, Blais A, Perrot J, Al-Kathiri A, Merkouriev S, Fleury JM, Ruellan PY, Lepvrier C, Huchon P (2004) From rifting to spreading in the eastern Gulf of Aden: a geophysical survey of a young oceanic basin from margin to margin. Terra Nova 16:185–192.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00550.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Leroy S, Razin P, Autin J, Bache F, Acremont E, Watremez L, Robinet J, Baurion C, Denèle Y, Bellahsen N, Lucazeau F, Rolandone F, Rouzo S, Kiel JS, Robin C, Guillocheau F, Tiberi C, Basuyau C, Beslier MO, Ebinger C, Stuart G, Ahmed A, Khanbari K, Ganad I, Clarens P, Unterneher P, Toubi K, Lazki AA (2012) From rifting to oceanic spreading in the Gulf of Aden: a synthesis. Arabian J Geosci 5:859–901.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-011-0475-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ligi M, Bonatti E, Bortoluzzi G, Cipriani A, Cocchi L, Tontini FC, EL Carminati Ottolini, Schettino A (2012) Birth of an ocean in the Red Sea: initial pangs. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 13:Q08009.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GC004155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ligi M, Bonatti E, Rasul NMA (2015) Seafloor spreading initiation: Geophysical and geochemical constraints from the Thetis and Nereus Deeps, central Red Sea. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: the formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 79–98.6  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45201-1_4Google Scholar
  83. Lowell JD, Genik GJ (1972) Sea-floor spreading and structural evolution of the southern Red Sea. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 56:247–259Google Scholar
  84. Manatschal G (2004) New models for evolution of magma-poor rifted margins based on a review of data and concepts from West Iberia and the Alps. Intl J Earth Sci 93:432–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Maus S, Barckhausen U, Berkenbosch H, Bournas N, Brozena J, Childers V, Dostaler F, Fairhead JD, Finn C, Frese RRB, Gaina C, Golynsky S, Kucks R, Luhr H, Milligan P, Muller RD, Olesen O, Pilkington M, Saltus R, Schreckenberger B, Thebault E, Tontini FC (2009) EMAG2: A 2-arc-minute resolution Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, airborne, and marine magnetic measurements. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 10:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GC002471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McKenzie DP, Davies D, Molnar P (1970) Plate tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa. Nature 226:242–248Google Scholar
  87. Meisling KE, Cobbold PR, Mount VS (2001) Segmentation of an obliquely rifted margin, Campos and Santos basins, southeastern Brazil. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 11:1903–1924Google Scholar
  88. Mello MR, Mohriak WU, Koutsoukos EAM, Bacoccoli G (1994) Selected petroleum systems in Brazil. In: Magoon LB, Dow WG (eds) The petroleum system—from source to trap. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Memoir 60:499–512Google Scholar
  89. Mello MR, Azambuja Filho NC, Bender AA, Barbanti SM, Mohriak W, Schmitt P, Jesus CLC (2013) The Namibian and Brazilian southern South Atlantic petroleum systems: are they comparable analogues? In: Mohriak WU, Danforth A, Post PJ, Brown DE, Tari GC, Nemcok M, Sinha ST (eds) Conjugate Divergent Margins, vol 369. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, pp 249–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mitchell NC, Ligi M, Ferrante V, Bonatti E, Rutter E (2010) Submarine salt flows in the central Red Sea. Geol Soc Am Bull 122:701–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mitchell NC, Park Y (2014) Nature of crust in the central Red Sea. Tectonophysics 628:123–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mohriak WU (2001) Salt tectonics, volcanic centers, fracture zones and their relationship with the origin and evolution of the South Atlantic ocean: geophysical evidence in the Brazilian and West African margins. In: 7th International congress of the Brazilian Geophys Soc, Salvador—Bahia, Brazil, October 28–31, 2001, Expanded Abstract, pp 1594–1597Google Scholar
  93. Mohriak WU (2003) Bacias sedimentares da margem continental Brasileira. In: Bizzi LA, Schobbenhaus C, Vidotti RM, Gonçalves JH (eds) Geologia. Tectônica e Recursos Minerais do Brasil, CPRM, Brasília, Capítulo III, pp 87–165Google Scholar
  94. Mohriak WU (2014) Birth and development of continental margin basins: Analogies from the South Atlantic, North Atlantic, and the Red Sea. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Search and Discovery, Article 41502 (posted December 22, 2014)Google Scholar
  95. Mohriak WU (2015) Rift basins in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: Analogies with the southern Atlantic. In: Post PJ, Coleman J, Rosen NC, Brown DE, Roberts-Ashby T, Kahn P, Rowan M (eds) 34th annual GCSSEPM foundation Perkins-Rosen research conference, petroleum systems in “rift” basins, Houston, December 13–15, Expanded Abstracts, pp 789–826Google Scholar
  96. Mohriak WU, Fainstein R (2012) Phanerozoic regional geology of the eastern Brazilian margin. In: Roberts D, Bally A (eds) Phanerozoic passive margins, cratonic basins and global tectonic maps. Elsevier BV, Chap 7, pp 223–282.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-444-56357-6.00006-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mohriak WU, Leroy S (2013) Architecture of rifted continental margins and break-up evolution: insights from the South Atlantic, North Atlantic and Red Sea–Gulf of Aden conjugate margins. In: Mohriak WU, Danforth A, Post PJ, Brown DE, Tari GC, Nemcok M, Sinha ST (eds) Conjugate divergent margins, vol 369. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, pp 497–535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP369.17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mohriak WU, Hobbs R, Dewey JF (1990a) Basin-forming processes and the deep structure of the Campos Basin, offshore Brazil. Marine Petrol Geol 7:94–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mohriak W, Mello MR, Dewey JF, Maxwell JR (1990b) Petroleum geology of the Campos Basin, offshore Brazil. In: Brooks J (ed) Classic petroleum provinces, vol 50. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, pp 119–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mohriak WU, Nemcok M, Enciso G (2008) South Atlantic divergent margin evolution: rift-border uplift and salt tectonics in the basins of SE Brazil. In: Pankhurst RJ, Trouw RAJ, Brito Neves BB, de Wit MJ (eds) West Gondwana pre-Cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic region, vol 294. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, pp 365–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mohriak WU, Nóbrega M, Odegard ME, Gomes BS, Dickson WG (2010) Geological and geophysical interpretation of the Rio Grande Rise, south-eastern Brazilian margin: extensional tectonics and rifting of continental and oceanic crusts. Petrol Geosci 16:231–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mohriak WU, Szatmari P, Anjos S (2012) Salt: Geology and tectonics of selected Brazilian basins in their global context. In: Alsop GI, Archer SG, Hartley AJ, Grant NT, Hodgkinson R (eds) Salt tectonics, sediments and prospectivity, vol 363. Geological Society of London. Special Publication, pp 131–158.  https://doi.org/10.1144/sp363.7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mooney WD, Gettings ME, Blank HR, Healy JH (1985) Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: a traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure. Tectonophysics 111:173–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Moulin M, Aslanian D, Unternehr P (2010) A new starting point for the south and equatorial Atlantic ocean. Earth-Sci Rev 98:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Norton IO, Carruthers DT, Hudec MR (2016) Rift to drift transition in the South Atlantic salt basins: A new flavor of oceanic crust. Geology 44:55–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pérez-Gussinyé M (2012) A tectonic model for hyperextension at magma-poor rifted margins: An example from the West Iberia–Newfoundland conjugate margins. In: Mohriak WU, Danforth A, Post PJ, Brown DE, Tari GC, Nemcok M, Sinha ST (eds) Conjugate divergent margins, vol 369. Geological Society of London. Special Publication, pp 403–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP369.19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Péron-Pinvidic G, Manatschal G (2009) The final rifting evolution at deep magma-poor passive margins from Iberia-newfoundland: a new point of view. Intl J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 98:1581–1597.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-008-0337-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Péron-Pinvidic G, Manatschal G, Osmundsen PT (2013) Structural comparison of archetypal Atlantic rifted margins: a review of observations and concepts. Marine Petrol Geol 43:21–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pindell J, Graham R, Bellingham P, McDermott K, Kaminski M, Paton D, Horn B (2015) Continental margin formation and creation of “lateral tectonic accommodation space” for salt deposition, Campos and Santos basins, São Paulo Plateau, Brazil. In: Post PJ, Coleman J, Rosen NC, Brown DE, Roberts-Ashby T, Kahn P, Rowan M (eds) 34th Annual GCSSEPM foundation Perkins-Rosen research conference, petroleum systems in “rift” basins, Expanded Abstracts, Houston, 13–15 December, pp 787–788Google Scholar
  110. Planke S, Rasmussen T, Rey SS, Myklebust R (2005) Seismic characteristics and distribution of volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal vent complexes in the Vøring and Møre basins. In: Doré AG, Vining BA (eds) Petroleum geology: North-West Europe and global perspectives. Proceedings of the 6th petroleum geology conference, pp 833–844Google Scholar
  111. Purser BH, Bosence DWJ (1988) Sedimentation and tectonics in rift basins: Red Sea—Gulf of Aden. Chapman & Hall, London, p 663Google Scholar
  112. Quirk DG, Hertle M, Jeppesen JW, Raven M, Mohriak WU, Kann DJ, Norgaard M, Howe MJ, Hsu D, Coffey B, Mendes MP (2013) Rifting, subsidence and continental break-up above a mantle plume in the central South Atlantic. In: Mohriak WU, Danforth A, Post PJ, Brown DE, Tari GC, Nemcok M, Sinha ST (eds) Conjugate divergent margins, vol 369. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, pp 185–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP369.20
  113. Rangel HD, Martins CC (1998) Principais compartimentos exploratórios, Bacia de Campos. In: Schlumberger, Search November 1998, Searching for Oil and Gas in the Land of Giants, Cenário geológico nas bacias sedimentares no Brasil, pp 16–40Google Scholar
  114. Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF, Nawab ZA (2015) Introduction to the Red Sea: its origin, structure, and environment. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: the formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a Young Ocean Basin. Springer Earth System Sciences. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1–28.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45201-1Google Scholar
  115. Rowan MG (2014) Passive-margin salt basins: hyperextension, evaporite deposition, and salt tectonics. Basin Res 26:154–182.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bre12043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Saleh S, Jahr T, Jentzsch G, Saleh A, Abou Ashour NM (2006) Crustal evaluation of the northern Red Sea rift and Gulf of Suez, Egypt from geophysical data: 3-dimensional modeling. J African Earth Sci 45:257–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sandwell DT, Smith WHF (2009) Global marine gravity from retracked Geosat and ERS-1 altimetry: ridge segmentation versus spreading rate. J Geophys Res 114:B01411.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JB006008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Schettino A, Macchiavelli C, Pierantoni PP, Zanoni D, Rasul N (2016) Recent kinematics of the tectonic plates surrounding the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Geophys J International 207(1):457–480.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggw280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Shipboard Scientific Party (1985) Introduction, objectives, and principal results: ocean drilling program Leg 103, West Galicia Margin. In: Boillot G et al (eds) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, vol 103, Part A—Initial Report, Galicia margin, pp 3–17Google Scholar
  120. Shipboard Scientific Party (1998) Leg 173 introduction. In: Whitmarsh RB, Beslier M-O, Wallace PJ, et al. (eds) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, initial reports, vol 173, pp 7–23Google Scholar
  121. Scotese CR (2002) Paleomap project. http://www.scotese.com
  122. Skiple C, Anderson E, Furstenau J (2012) Seismic interpretation and attribute analysis of the Herodotus and the Levantine Basin, offshore Cyprus and Lebanon. Petrol Geosci 18:433–442.  https://doi.org/10.1144/petgeo2011-072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sultan M, Becker R, Arvidson RE, Shore P, Stern RJ, Alfy ZE, Guinness EA (1992) Nature of the Red Sea crust: a controversy revisited. Geology 20:593–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Taylor B, Goodliffe A, Martinez F (2009) Initiation of transform faults at rifted continental margins. CR Geosci 341:428–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tubbs RE, Fouda HGA, Afifi AM, Raterman NS, Hughes GW, Fadolalkarem YK (2014) Midyan Peninsula, northern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia: seismic imaging and regional interpretation. GeoArabia 19:165–184Google Scholar
  126. Unternehr P, Peron-Pinvidic G, Manatschal G, Sutra E (2010) Hyper-extended crust in the South Atlantic: in search of a model. Petrol Geosci 16:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Voggenreiter W, Hotzl H (1989) Kinematic evolution of the southwestern Arabian continental margin: implications for the origin of the Red Sea. J African Earth Sci 8:541–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Voggenreiter W, Hotzl H, Mechie J (1988) Low-angle detachment origin for the Red Sea rift system? Tectonophysics 150:51–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Watremez L, Leroy S, Rouzo S, d’Acremont E, Unternehr P, Ebinger C, Lucazeau F, Al Lazki A (2011) The crustal structure of the northeastern Gulf of Aden continental margin: insights from wide-angle seismic data. Geophys J Intl 184:575–594.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04881.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wegener A (1912) The origins of the continents. In: Jacoby WR (2001) Translation of Die Entstehung der Kontinente, Dr Alfred Wegener, Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, 58 I, 185–195, 253–256, 305–309. J Geodynamics 32:29–63Google Scholar
  131. Whitmarsh RB, Wallace PJ (1998) The rift-to-drift development of the West Iberia nonvolcanic continental margin: A summary and review of the contribution of the ocean drilling program Leg 173. In: Beslier MO, Whitmarsh RB, Wallace PJ, Girardeau J (eds) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, scientific results, vol 173, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  132. Wilson JT (1966) Did the Atlantic close and then re-open? Nature 211:676–681.  https://doi.org/10.1038/211676a0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Winter WR, Jahnert RJ, França AB (2007) Bacia de Campos. Boletim de Geociências da Petrobras 15(2):511–529Google Scholar
  134. Xu W, Ruch J, Jónsson S (2015) Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea. Nat Comm 6:7104.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zahran HM, Stewart ICF, Johnson PR, Basahel MH (2003) Aeromagnetic-anomaly maps of central and western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2002-8, 6 p, 1 fig., 1 table, 4 platesGoogle Scholar
  136. Zalán PV, Severino MCG, Rigoti CA, Magnavita LP, Oliveira JAB, Vianna AR (2011) An entirely new 3D-view of the crustal and mantle structure of a South Atlantic passive margin—Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo Basins, Brazil. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Search and Discovery, article 30177, 12 pGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UERJ—State University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations