Neotectonics of the Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba

  • William Bosworth
  • Marco Taviani
  • Najeeb M. A. Rasul


The Red Sea, Gulf of Suez, and Gulf of Aqaba comprise the active plate boundaries that separate Africa-Nubia, Arabia and Sinai. This tripartite configuration has been in existence since the Middle Miocene, or about the past 12–14 Ma. We describe the ongoing and geologically recent tectonics of these regions. The Red Sea rift lies east of a broad region of E-W maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) that covers much of central Africa-Nubia. On its Arabian side, SHmax is oriented N-S to NE-SW. These far field stresses owe their origins to the spreading centres of the Atlantic Ocean and collision between Arabia and Eurasia along the Bitlis-Zagros suture. At the continental scale, the Red Sea is therefore subjected to compression perpendicular to or at a high-angle to its margins. The realm of shallow crustal stresses conducive to extensional faulting in a Red Sea orientation (rift-normal Shmin) is presently restricted to the Red Sea marine basin itself, and perhaps narrow belts along its shoulders. In the Gulf of Suez there is enough data to show that each of its sub-basins is presently undergoing extension, but in conjunction with differently oriented, sub-regional shallow crustal stress fields. These appear to be spatially related to the original Early Miocene syn-rift basin geometries. NNE-SSW extension in the southern Gulf of Suez is probably generated by sinistral slip on the similarly oriented Gulf of Aqaba transform margin. Large M > 6 earthquakes are generally restricted to the central basin of the Gulf of Aqaba, the southern Gulf of Suez, and the greater Afar region. The geodynamic details responsible for the focusing of these large events are specific to each locale but all are in general associated with the junctions of major plate boundaries. Catalogues of earthquake activity and GPS datasets show that the Sinai micro-plate is still moving away from Africa with a component of left-lateral slip. This results in components of extension perpendicular to both the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. The kinematics of the southern Red Sea are similarly complex. Not all opening has jumped to the west side of the Danakil horst and significant tectonic activity still occurs along the southernmost Red Sea axis in the vicinity of the Zubair Archipelago. This is the only volcanically active segment of the Red Sea basin that is above sea level. Dike intrusions are ~N-S and not aligned parallel to the rift axis and may indicate that the underlying magmatism is swinging to the west to link with the Afar triple junction. All of the margins of the Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba underwent tectonically-driven rift shoulder uplift and denudation in the past, particularly during the main phases of continental rifting. However, during the past 125 kyr uplift has been focused along the footwalls of a few, active extensional faults. These include the Hammam Faraun-Tanka fault in the central Gulf of Suez, the Gebel el Zeit-Shadwan Island fault in the southern Gulf of Suez, the Sinai and Arabia coastal boundaries of the Gulf of Aqaba, and faults at Tiran Island at the junction of the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea. Smaller-scale extensional faulting is also occurring along the Saudi Arabian margin of the northern Red Sea, in the Dahlak and Farasan Archipelagos, and on the volcanically active islands of the Zubair Archipelago in the southernmost Red Sea. On the Farasan and Dahlak islands this is largely related to the movement of underlying salt bodies, similar to effects documented along the coastal plain of Yemen. Though not active at the present time, a broad belt of small-offset, very linear extensional faults dissected the western margin of the central Gulf of Suez during the Plio-Pleistocene. Similar age and style deformation has not been identified in the Suez sub-basins to the north or south. The most significant large-scale neotectonic features of the Red Sea rift system are its southern oceanic spreading centre and the northern linkage to the left-lateral Gulf of Aqaba—Levant transform fault. However, many segments of the rift margins and in particular the Gulf of Suez remain tectonically active. These areas provide stress field and horizontal and vertical displacement data that are relatively inexpensive to acquire and complementary to analyses of the offshore main plate boundaries themselves.



Daniel Stockli, Scott Durocher, Michele Morsilli, Damian Kelly, Grant Spencer, Miguel Muñoz, Ryan Miller, Douglas Barber and Michael Prior participated in field work in the Gulf of Suez and Egyptian Red Sea islands. Studies in the Gulf of Aqaba and Saudi Arabian Red Sea were promoted and funded by the Saudi Geological Survey in Jeddah and we thank Dr. Zohair Nawab and Dr. Abdullah Alattas for their support and encouragement. We acknowledge all participants of the 2013 and 2014 Saudi Field Parties for field work and post-expedition sample processing. Comments by four anonymous reviewers were very helpful. This paper is part of the PRIN2012 Programme (Project 20125JKANY_002, Principal Investigator Marco Ligi) and is ISMAR-CNR, Bologna, Scientific Contribution no. 1904.


  1. Alamri AM, Schult FR, Bufe CG (1991) Seismicity and aeromagnetic features of the Gulf of Aqaba (Elat) region. J Geophys Res 96:20179–20185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Tarazi E (2000) The major Gulf of Aqaba earthquake, 22 November 1995-Maximum Intensity Distribution. Nat Hazards 22:17–27Google Scholar
  3. Ambraseys NN, Melville CP, Adams RD (1994) The seismicity of Egypt, Arabia and the Red Sea: a historical review. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ameen MS (2014) Fracture and in-situ stress patterns and impact on performance in the Khuff structural prospects, eastern offshore Saudi Arabia. Mar Petrol Geol 50:166–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ameen MS, Buhidma IM, Rahim Z (2010) The function of fractures and in-situ stresses in the Khuff reservoir performance, onshore fields, Saudi Arabia. Bull Am Assoc Petrol Geol 94:27–60Google Scholar
  6. Andres W, Radtke U (1988) Quartäre strandterrassen an der Küste des Gebel Zeit (Golf von Suez/Ägypten). Erdkunde 42:7–16Google Scholar
  7. ANSS (2016) Comprehensive earthquake catalog (ComCat). USGS earthquake hazards program. Search Earthquake Catalogue. Accessed 05 Sept 2016
  8. ArRajehi A, McClusky S, Reilinger R, Daoud M, Alchalbi A, Ergintav S, Gomez F, Sholan J, Bou-Rabee F, Ogubazghi G, Haileab B, Fisseha S, Asfaw L, Mahmoud S, Rayan A, Bendik R, Kogan L (2010) Geodetic constraints on present-day motion of the Arabian plate: implications for Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting. Tectonics 29:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayele A (2002) Active compressional tectonics in central Africa and implications for plate tectonic models: evidence from fault mechanism studies of the 1998 earthquakes in the Congo Basin. J Afr Earth Sci 35:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Babiker N, Mula AHG, El-Hadidy S (2015) A unified Mw-based earthquake catalogue and seismic source zones for the Red Sea region. J Afr Earth Sci 109:168–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Badawy A (2001) Status of the crustal stress in Egypt as inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts. Tectonophys 343:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bantan RA (1999) Geology and sedimentary environments of Farasan Bank (Saudi Arabia) southern Red Sea: a combined remote sensing and field study. PhD Thesis, Royal Holloway, University of London, 297 pGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartov Y, Steinitz G, Eyal M, Eyal Y (1980) Sinistral movement along the Gulf of Aqaba: its age and relation to opening the Red Sea. Nature 285:220–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ben-Avraham Z (1985) Structural framework of the Gulf of Elat (Aqaba)—northern Red Sea. J Geophys Res 90:703–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ben-Avraham Z, Zoback MD (1992) Transform-normal extension and asymmetric basins: an alternative to pull-apart models. Geology 20:423–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ben-Avraham Z, Garfunkel Z, Almagor G, Hall JK (1979) Continental breakup by a leaky transform: the Gulf of Elat (Aqaba). Science 206:214–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beydoun ZR (1989) The hydrocarbon prospects of the Red Sea—Gulf of Aden: a review. J Petrol Geol 12:125–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beydoun ZR, Sikander AH (1992) The Red Sea-Gulf of Aden: re-assessment of hydrocarbon potential. Marine Petrol Geol 9:474–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bonatti E, Hamlyn PB, Ottonello G (1981) The upper mantle beneath a young oceanic rift: peridotites from the Island of Zabargad (Red Sea). Geology 9:474–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bonatti E, Clocchiatti R, Colantoni P, Gelmini R, Marinelli G, Ottonello G, Santacroce R, Taviani M, Abdel-Meguid AA, Assaf HS, El Tahir MA (1983) Zabargad (St. John’s) Island: an uplifted fragment of sub-Red Sea lithosphere. J Geol Soc Lond 140:677–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bosence DWJ, Al-Awah MH, Davison I, Rosen BR, Vita-Finzi C, Whittaker E (1998) Salt domes and their control on basin margin sedimentation: a case study from the Tihama plain, Yemen. In: Purser BH, Bosence DWJ (eds) Sedimentation and tectonics in rift basins: Red Sea—Gulf of Aden. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 448–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bosworth W (1985) Geometry of propagating continental rifts. Nature 316:625–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bosworth W (1995) A high-strain rift model for the southern Gulf of Suez (Egypt). In: Lambiase JJ (ed) Hydrocarbon habitat in rift basins. Geol Soc London, Special Paper 80:75–112Google Scholar
  24. Bosworth W (2008) North Africa—Mediterranean present-day stress field transition and implications for fractured reservoir production in the Eastern Libyan Basins. In: Salem MJ, Oun KM, Essed AS (eds) Geology of East Libya, vol 4. Earth Science Soc Libya, Tripoli, pp 123–138Google Scholar
  25. Bosworth W, Durocher S (2017) Present-day stress fields of the Gulf of Suez (Egypt) based on exploratory well data: non-uniform regional extension and its relation to inherited structures and local plate motion. J Afr Earth Sci. Scholar
  26. Bosworth W, McClay K (2001) Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt: a synthesis. In: Ziegler PA, Cavazza W, Robertson AHF, Crasquin-Soleau S (eds) Peri-Tethys Memoir 6: Peri-Tethyan Rift/Wrench basins and passive margins. Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris 186:567–606Google Scholar
  27. Bosworth W, Stockli DF (2016) Early magmatism in the greater Red Sea rift: timing and significance. Can J Earth Sci 53:1158–1176. Scholar
  28. Bosworth W, Strecker MR (1997) Stress field changes in the Afro-Arabian rift system during the miocene to recent period. Tectonophys 278:47–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bosworth W, Taviani M (1996) Late Quaternary reorientation of stress field and extension direction in the southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt: evidence from uplifted coral terraces, mesoscopic fault arrays, and borehole breakouts. Tectonics 15:791–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bosworth W, Strecker MR, Blisniuk PM (1992) Integration of East African paleo and present-day stress data: implications for continental stress field dynamics. J Geophys Res 97:11851–11865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bosworth W, Darwish M, Crevello P, Taviani M, Marshak S (1996) Stratigraphic and structural evolution of Zabargad Island (Red Sea, Egypt) since the early cretaceous. In: Youssef El SA (ed) Proceedings of third international conference on geology of the Arab World, vol 1, pp 161–190Google Scholar
  32. Bosworth W, Crevello P, Winn RD, Steinmetz J (1998) Structure, sedimentation, and basin dynamics during rifting of the Gulf of Suez and northwestern Red Sea. In: Purser BH, Bosence DWJ (eds) Sedimentation and tectonics of rift basins: Red Sea-Gulf of Aden. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 77–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bosworth W, Huchon P, McClay K (2005) The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Basins. In: Catuneanu O, Guiraud R, ErikssonP, Thomas B, Shone R, Key R (eds) Phanerozoic evolution of Africa. J African Earth Sci 43:334–378Google Scholar
  34. Bosworth W, Montagna P, Pons-Branchu E, Rasul N, Taviani M (2017) Seismic hazards implications of uplifted Pleistocene coral terraces in the Gulf of Aqaba. Sci Rep 7(1):38, 1–13.
  35. Camp VE, Roobol MJ (1992) Upwelling asthenosphere beneath western Arabia and its regional implications. J Geophys Res 97(B11):15255–15271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carbone F, Matteucci R, Angelucci A (1998) Present-day sedimentation on the carbonate platform of the Dahlak Islands, Eritrea. In: Purser BH, Bosence DWJ (eds) Sedimentation and tectonics of rift basins: Red Sea-Gulf of Aden. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 523–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Choukri A, Reyss J-L, Plaziat J-C (1995) Datations radiochimiques des hauts niveaux marins de la rive occidentale du Nord de la Mer Rouge au moyen de radioles d’oursin. C. R. Acad. Sci Paris 321, série Iia:25–30Google Scholar
  38. Cochran JR (1983) A model for development of the Red Sea. Bull Am Assoc Petrol Geol 67:41–69Google Scholar
  39. Coleman RG (1974) Geologic background of the Red Sea. In: Whitmarsh RB, Weser OE, Ross DA et al (eds) Initial reports of the deep sea drilling project, vol 23. Government Printing Office, Washington, pp 813–819Google Scholar
  40. Colletta B, Le Quellec P, Letouzey J, Moretti I (1988) Longitudinal evolution of the Suez rift structure (Egypt). Tectonophys 153:221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dabbagh AE, Hoetzl H, Schnier H (1984) South Tihamah and Farasan Islands; Farasan Islands. In: Jado AR, Zoetl JG (eds) Quaternary period in Saudi Arabia, vol 2. Sedimentological, hydrochemical, geomorphological, geochronological and climatological investigations in western Saudi Arabia. Springer, Vienna, pp 212–220Google Scholar
  42. Daggett PH, Morgan P, Boulos FK, Hennin SF, El-Sherif AA, El-Sayed AA, Basta NZ, Melek YS (1986) Seismicity and active tectonics of the Egyptian Red Sea margin and the northern Red Sea. Tectonophys 125:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Davison I, Bosence D, Alsop I, Al-Aawah MH (1996) Deformation and sedimentation around active Miocene salt diapirs on the Tihama Plain, northwest Yemen. In: Alsop I, Blundell D, Davison I (eds) Salt tectonics. Geol Soc London, Special Publication 100:23–39Google Scholar
  44. Delvaux D, Barth A (2010) African stress pattern from formal inversion of focal mechanism data. Tectonophys 482:105–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Drake CL, Girdler RW (1964) A geophysical study of the Red Sea. Geophys J Roy Astron Soc 8:473–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dullo W-C (1990) Facies, fossil record, and age of pleistocene reefs from the Red Sea (Saudi Arabia). Facies 22:1–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dullo W-C, Montaggioni L (1998) Modern Red Sea coral reefs: a review of their morphologies and zonation. In: Purser BH, Bosence DWJ (eds) Sedimentation and tectonics of rift basins: Red Sea-Gulf of Aden. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 583–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Eagles G, Gloaguen R, Ebinger C (2002) Kinematics of the Danakil microplate. Earth Planet Sci Lett 203:607–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ehrhardt A, Hübscher C (2015) The northern Red Sea in transition from rifting to drifting- lessons learned from ocean deeps. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: the formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Heidelberg, pp 99–121Google Scholar
  50. Ehrhardt A, Hübscher C, Ben-Avraham Z, Gajewski D (2005) Seismic study of pull-apart-induced sedimentation and deformation in the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Elat). Tectonophys 396:59–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. El Moursi MEE (1993) Pleistocene evolution of the reef terraces of the Red Sea coastal plain between Hurghada and Marsa Alam. Egypt J Afr Earth Sci 17:125–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. El Moursi M, Hoang CT, El Fayoumy IF, Hegab O, Faure H (1994) Pleistocene evolution of the Red Sea coastal plain, Egypt: evidence from Uranium-series dating of emerged reef terraces. Quatern Sci Rev 13:345–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. El-Isa ZH, Al Shanti A (1989) Seismicity and tectonics of the Red Sea and western Arabia. Geophys J 97:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Eyal M, Eyal Y, Bartov Y, Steinitz G (1981) The tectonic development of the western margin of the Gulf of Elat (Aqaba) rift. Tectonophys 80:39–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Feldens P, Mitchells NC (2015) Salt flows in the central Red Sea. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: the formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Heidelberg, pp 205–218Google Scholar
  56. Frazier SB (1970) Adjacent structures of Ethiopia, the portion of Red Sea coast including Dahlak Kebir Island and the Gulf of Zula. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond A267:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Garfunkel Z (1981) Internal structure of the Dead Sea leaky transform (rift) in relation to plate kinematics. Tectonophys 80:81–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gaulon R, Chorowicz J, Vidal G, Romanowicz B, Roult G (1992) Regional geodynamic implications of the May–July 1990 earthquake sequence in southern Sudan. Tectonophys 209:87–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Giardini D, Beranzoli L (1992) Waveform modelling of the May 20, 1990 Sudan earthquake. Tectonophys 209:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Girdler RW (1958) The relationship of the Red Sea to the east African rift system. Quart J Geol Soc London 114:79–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gvirtzman G, Kronfeld J, Buchbinder B (1992) Dated coral reefs of southern Sinai (Red Sea) and their implication to late quaternary sea levels. Marine Geol 108:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Goldberg M, Beyth M (1991) Tiran Island: an internal block at the junction of the Red Sea rift and Dead Sea Transform. Tectonophys 198:261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Heidbach O, Tingay M, Barth A, Reinecker J, Kurfeß D, Müller B (2008) The world stress map database release 2008.
  64. Hofstetter A (2003) Seismic observations of the 22/11/1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake sequence. Tectonophys 369:21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hofstetter A, Beyth M (2003) The Afar depression: interpretation of the 1960–2000 earthquakes. Geophys J Int 155:715–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hoang CT, Taviani M (1991) Stratigraphic and tectonic implications of uranium-series-dated coral reefs from uplifted Red Sea Islands. Quat Res 35:264–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Huang PY, Solomon SC (1987) Centroid depths and mechanisms of mid-ocean ridge earthquakes in the Indian Ocean, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea. J Geophys Res 92:1361–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hughes GW, Beydoun ZR (1992) The Red Sea-Gulf of Aden: biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy and palaeoenvironments. J Petrol Geol 15:135–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hughes GW, Abdine S, Girgis MH (1992) Miocene biofacies development and geological history of the Gulf of Suez. Egypt Marine Petrol Geol 9:2–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hussein HM, Abou Elenean KM, Marzouk IA, Korrat IM, Abu El-Nader IF, Ghazala H, El Gabry MN (2013) Present-day tectonic stress regime in Egypt and surrounding area based on inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms. J Afr Earth Sci 81:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Inglis RH, Bosworth W, Rasul N, Al Saeedi A, Bailey G (this volume) Investigating the palaeoshorelines and coastal archaeology of the southern Red SeaGoogle Scholar
  72. Jackson JA, White NJ, Garfunkel Z, Anderson H (1988) Relations between normal-fault geometry, tilting and vertical motions in extensional terrains: an example from the southern Gulf of Suez. J Struct Geol 10:155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jarrige J-J, Ott d’Estevou P, Burollet PF, Montenat C, Prat P, Richert J-P, Thiriet J-P (1990) The multistage tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Suez and northern Red Sea continental rift from field observations. Tectonics 9:441–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Joffe S, Garfunkel Z (1987) Plate kinematics of the circum Red Sea—a re-evaluation. Tectonophys 141:5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jónsson S, Xu W (2015) Volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea during 2007–2013. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: the formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Heidelberg, pp 175–186Google Scholar
  76. Kopp RE, Simons FJ, Mitrovica JX, Maloof AC, Oppenheimer M (2009) Probabilistic assessment of sea level during the last interglacial stage. Nature 462:863–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lambeck K, Chappell J (2001) Sea-level change through the last glacial cycle. Science 292:679–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lambeck K, Purcell A, Flemming NC, Vita-Finzi C, Alsharekh AM, Bailey GN (2011) Sea level and shoreline reconstructions for the Red Sea: isostatic and tectonic considerations and implications for hominin migration out of Africa. Quatern Sci Rev 30:3542–3574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Le Gall B, Daoud MA, Rolet J, Egueh NM (2011) Large-scale flexuring and antithetic faulting along a nascent plate boundary in the SE Afar rift. Terra Nova 23:416–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ligi M, Bonatti E, Rasul NMA (2015) Seafloor spreading initiation: geophysical and geochemical constraints from the Thetis and Nereus Deeps, central Red Sea. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: the formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Heidelberg, pp 79–98Google Scholar
  81. Ligi M, Bonatti E, Bortoluzzi G, Cipriani A, Cocchi L, Caratori Tontini F, Carminati E, Ottolini L, Schettino A (2012) Birth of an ocean in the Red Sea: initial pangs. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 13. 10.1029/2012GC004155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mahmoud S, Reilinger R, McClusky S, Vernant P, Tealeb A (2005) GPS evidence for northward motion of the Sinai block: implications for E Mediterranean tectonics. Earth Planet Sci Lett 238:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Manaa AA (2011) Late pleistocene raised coral reefs in the eastern Red Sea—Rabigh, Saudi Arabia. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Wollongong.
  84. Manaa AA, Jones BG, McGregor HV, Zhao J, Price DM (2016) Dating quaternary raised coral terraces along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast. Mar Geol 374:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Manighetti I, Tapponnier P, Gillot PY, Jacques E, Courtillot V, Armijo R, Ruegg JC, King G (1998) Propagation of rifting along the Arabia-Somalia plate boundary: into Afar. J Geophys Res 103:4947–4974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Marshak S, Bonatti E, Brueckner H, Paulsen T (1992) Fracture-zone tectonics at Zabargad Island, Red Sea (Egypt). Tectonophys 216:379–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McClusky S, Reilinger R, Ogubazghi G, Amleson A, Haleab B, Vernant P, Sholan J (2010) Kinematics of the southern Red Sea-Afar triple junction and implications for plate dynamics. Geophys Res Lett 37. Scholar
  88. McQuarrie N, Stock JM, Verdel C, Wernicke BP (2003) Cenozoic evolution of Neotethys and implications for the causes of plate motions. Geophys Res Lett 30:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Miller PM, Barakat H (1988) Geology of the Safaga concession, northern Red Sea. Egypt Tectonophys 153:123–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mitchell NC, Ligi M, Ferrante V, Bonatti E, Rutter E (2010) Submarine salt flows in the central Red Sea. Geol Soc Am Bull 122:701–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Montenat C, Ott D’estevou P, Purser B, Burollet P, Jarrige J, Sperber F, Philobbos E, Plaziat J-C, Prat P, Richert J, Roussel N, Theiriet J (1988) Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Gulf of Suez and the northern western Red Sea. Tectonophys 153:166–177Google Scholar
  92. Moretti I, Colletta B (1987) Spatial and temporal evolution of the Suez rift subsidence. J Geodyn 7:151–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mougenot D, Al-Shakhis AA (1999) Depth imaging sub-salt structures: a case study in the Midyan Peninsula (Red Sea). GeoArabia 4:445–463Google Scholar
  94. Moustafa AM (1976) Block faulting of the Gulf of Suez. In: 5th Egyptian general petroleum organization exploration seminar, Cairo, 19 p (unpublished report distributed as paper copies at the conference)Google Scholar
  95. Moustafa AR (1997) Controls on the development and evolution of transfer zones: the influence of basement structure and sedimentary thickness in the Suez rift and Red Sea. J Struct Geol 19:755–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. NOAA (2016) National oceanic and atmospheric administration (NOAA), National Centers for Environmental Information, World Data Service for Geophysics—bathymetry and global relief grid extract.
  97. Patton TL, Moustafa AR, Nelson RA, Abdine SA (1994) Tectonic evolution and structural setting of the Suez Rift. In: Landon SM (ed) Interior rift basins. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Memoir 59:7–55Google Scholar
  98. Perry SK, Schamel S (1990) The role of low-angle normal faulting and isostatic response in the evolution of the Suez rift. Egypt. Tectonophys 174:159–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Plaziat J-C, Montenat C, Barrier P, Janin M-C, Orszag-Sperber F, Philobbos E (1998) Stratigraphy of the Egyptian syn-rift deposits: Correlations between axial and peripheral sequences of the north-western Red Sea and Gulf of Suez and their relations with tectonics and eustacy. In: Purser BH, Bosence DWJ (eds) Sedimentation and tectonics in rift basins: Red Sea—Gulf of Aden. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Quennell AM (1956) Tectonics of the Dead Sea Rift. In: 20th International Geol Congress, Mexico City, 1956, Resumenes de los trabajos presentados, p 407Google Scholar
  101. Quennell AM (1958) The structural and geomorphic evolution of the Dead Sea rift. Quart J Geol Soc London 114:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Redfield TF, Wheeler WH, Often M (2003) A kinematic model for the development of the Afar depression and its paleogeographic implications. Earth Planet Sci Lett 216:383–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Reilinger R, McClusky S, ArRajehi A (2015) Geodetic constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the Red sea. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: the formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 135–149Google Scholar
  104. Reyss JL, Choukri A, Plaziat JC, Purser BH (1993) Datations radiochimiques des récifs coralliens de la rive occidentale du Nord de la Mer Rouge, premières implications stratigraphiques et tectoniques. C. R. AcadSci Paris 317, série II:487–492Google Scholar
  105. Roobol MJ, Stewart ICF (2009) Cenozoic faults and recent seismicity in northwest Saudi Arabia and the Gulf of Aqaba region. Saudi geological survey technical report SGS-TR-2008-7, 35 pGoogle Scholar
  106. Roobol MJ, Al-Rehaili M, Arab N, Celebi M, Halawani MA, Janjou D, Kazi A, Martin C, Sahl M, Showail A (1999) The Gulf of Aqaba earthquake of 22 November, 1995: its effects in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabian deputy ministry for mineral resources technical report BRGM-TR-99-16, 67 pGoogle Scholar
  107. Salamon A, Hofstetter A, Garfunkel Z, Ron H (1996) Seismicity of the eastern mediterranean region: perspective from the Sinai subplate. Tectonophys 263:293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schick AP (1958) Marine terraces on Tiran Island, northern Red Sea. Geogr Ann 40:63–66Google Scholar
  109. Scholz D, Mangini A, Felis T (2004) U-series dating of diagenetically altered fossil reef corals. Earth Planet Sci Lett 218:163–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Steckler MS, Berthelot F, Lyberis N, Le Pichon X (1988) Subsidence in the Gulf of Suez: implications for rifting and plate kinematics. Tectonophys 153:249–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Strecker MR, Blisniuk PM, Eisbacher GH (1990) Rotation of extension direction in the central Kenya rift. Geology 18:299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Taviani M, Montagna P, Rasul NMA, Angeletti L, Bosworth W (this volume) Pleistocene coral reef terraces on the Saudi Arabian side of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red SeaGoogle Scholar
  113. Tewfik N, Ayyad M (1984) Petroleum exploration in the Red Sea shelf of Egypt. In: Proceeding of 6th exploration seminar, Egyptian general petroleum corporation and Egypt petroleum exploration society, Cairo, March 1982, 1:159–180Google Scholar
  114. USGS (2016) Plate boundaries.
  115. Wolfenden E, Ebinger C, Yirgu G, Deino A, Ayalew D (2004) Evolution of the northern main Ethiopian rift: birth of a triple junction. Earth Planet Sci Lett 224:213–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Xu W, Ruch J, Jónsson S (2015) Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea. Nat Comm 6:7104. Scholar
  117. Zoback ML (1992) First- and second-order patterns of stress in the lithosphere: the world stress map project. J Geophys Res 97:11703–11728CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Bosworth
    • 1
  • Marco Taviani
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Najeeb M. A. Rasul
    • 5
  1. 1.Apache Egypt CompaniesCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR-CNR)BolognaItaly
  3. 3.Biology DepartmentWoods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA
  4. 4.Stazione Zoologica Anton DohrnNaplesItaly
  5. 5.Center for Marine Geology, Saudi Geological SurveyJeddahSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations