Advertisement

Mollusc Fauna Associated with Late Pleistocene Coral Reef Systems of the Saudi Arabian Side of the Gulf of Aqaba

  • Lorenzo Angeletti
  • Najeeb M. A. Rasul
  • Marco Taviani
Chapter

Abstract

The Saudi Arabian eastern side of the Gulf of Aqaba has been recently explored all along its length, and the main Pleistocene coral reef outcrops identified and sampled for macrofossils. Terraces ascribable to the last interglacial, the Marine Isotope Stage 5e (MIS5e, ~125kyr BP), predominate and contain a well preserved fossil legacy of sea life at the time. Molluscs proved to represent the most diverse component in the macrobenthos, overwhelming at species up to family levels other benthic groups. As many as 124 families of marine molluscs have been identified in this fossil system, 86 of which pertain to Gastropoda, 31 to Bivalvia, 5 to Polyplacophora and 2 to Scaphopoda. No less than 277 genera are represented in the fossil mollusc fauna, and the diversity is well in excess of 400 species. Molluscs are a fundamental clue for classifying with relative precision the former habitats preserved in these MIS5e coral systems. By and large, the MIS5e deposits document former back reef to fore-reef environments and, to a minor degree, beach or mangal settings. The fauna includes also some index-fossils of ecostratigraphic significance for recognizing MIS5e deposits in the Red Sea. The MIS5e fauna of the Gulf of Aqaba is an astonishing example of a tropical marine biodiversity hotspot whose number of species and genera is not rivalled globally by any known coeval mollusc fauna.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is dedicated to the memory of geologist Marcello Facundo Quarantini (1972-2018). We thank the Saudi Geological Survey for the invitation to present this study at the ‘2nd Red Sea Book Workshop’ held in Jeddah on February 2016. The expedition in the Gulf of Aqaba was promoted and funded by the Saudi Geological Survey in Jeddah. We acknowledge all participants in the winter 2013 field party and the SGS personnel for field work and post-expedition sample processing. In particular, the raised coral reefs considered here were surveyed together with Bill Bosworth and Paolo Montagna. We are very grateful to Martin Zuschin and two anonymous referees for their critical comments. This paper is part of the PRIN2012 Programme (Project 20125JKANY_002, Principal Investigator Marco Ligi) and is Ismar-CNR, Bologna, Scientific contribution no. 1903.

References

  1. Abu-Zied RH, Bantan RA (2018) Late Pleistocene gastropods from the raised reefal limestone of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: taxonomic and palaeoenvironmental implications. Paleontol Z 92:65–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexandroff SJ, Zuschin KA (2016) Quantitative comparison of Pleistocene and recent coral reef habitats in the northern Red Sea (El Quseir, Egypt). Facies 62:15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10347-016-0468-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alhejoj I, Bandel K, Al-Najjar T (2016a) Pickworthiidae and Aqabarellidae new family (Caenogastropoda, Mollusca) of Aqaba, Jordan: their larval shells and remarks about their evolution and relation. Natural Sci 8:403–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alhejoj I, Bandel K, Salameh E (2016b) The fossil beach and reef terraces of the Gulf of Aqaba coast, Jordan—its environment, formation, and relation to mountain uplifting mechanism. Arab J Geosci 9:275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Mikhlafi AS, Edwards LR, Cheng I (2017) Sea-level history and tectonic uplift during the last-interglacial period (LIG): Inferred from the Bab al-Mandab coral reef terraces, southern Red Sea. J Afr Earth Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.10.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Almogi-Labin A, Hemleben C, Meischner D,ErlenkeusH (1991) Paleoenvironmental events during the last 13,000 years in the Central Red Sea as recorded by Pteropoda. Paleoceanogr 6:83–98Google Scholar
  7. Amorosi A, Antonioli F, Bertini A, Marabini S, Mastronuzzi G, Montagna P, Negri A, Rossi V, Scarponi D, Taviani M, Angeletti L, Piva A, Vai GB (2014) The Middle-Upper Pleistocene Fronte Section (Taranto, Italy): An exceptionally preserved marine record of the Last Interglacial. Glob Planet Change 119:23–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anseeuw B, Terryn Y (2004) Intertidal chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the coast of Jordan, Red Sea, with the description of a new species of Parachiton Thiele, 1909. Boll Malacol, Suppl 5:1–24, 2003:1–24Google Scholar
  9. Arkell WJ (1928) Aspects of the ecology of certain fossil coral reefs. J Ecol 16:134–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ávila SP, Melo C, Silva L, Ramalho RS, Quartau R, Hipólito A, Cordeiro R, Rebelo AC, Madeira P, Rovere A, Hearty PJ, Henriques D, Marques da Silva C, de Frias Martins AM, Zazo C (2015) A review of the MIS 5e highstand deposits from Santa Maria Island (Azores, NE Atlantic): Palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography. Quat Sci Rev 114:126–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bantan RA, Abu-Zied RH (2014) Sediment characteristics and molluscan fossils of the Farasan Islands shorelines, southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Arab J Geosc 7:773–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berry L, Whiteman AJ, Bell SV (1966) Some radiocarbon dates and their geomorphological significance, emerged reef complex of the Sudan. Z Geomorphol 10:119–143Google Scholar
  13. Borri M, Sabelli B, Taviani M (1982) Cypraea (Talparia) exusta Sowerby, 1832, from the central Red Sea: new data. Lavori Soc Malacol Ital, pp 103–107Google Scholar
  14. Bosworth W, Taviani M, Rasul N, Angeletti L, Montagna P, and Team (2013) Pleistocene Coral Terrace Project—Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia, Phase 1: December 6–15, 2013. Saudi Geological Survey Technical Report (unpublished), 61 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Bosworth W, Montagna P, Pons-Branchu E, Rasul N, Taviani M (2017) Seismic hazards implications of uplifted Pleistocene coral terraces in the Gulf of Aqaba. Sci Repts 7, 38, 13 pp.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00074-2
  16. Bosworth W, Rasul NMA, Taviani M (this volume) Neotectonics of the Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of AqabaGoogle Scholar
  17. Bosworth W, Taviani M (1996) Late Quaternary reorientation of stress field and extension direction in the southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt: Evidence from uplifted coral terraces, mesoscopic fault arrays, and borehole breakouts. Tectonics 15:791–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouchet P (2006) The magnitude of marine biodiversity. In: Duarte CM (ed) The Exploration of marine biodiversity: scientific and technological challenges. Fundación BBVA, Bilbao, Spain, Braby, pp 31–62Google Scholar
  19. Bouchet P, Lozouet P, Maestrati P, Heros V (2002) Assessing the magnitude of species richness in tropical marine environments: Exceptionally high numbers of molluscs at a New Caledonia site. Biol J Linnean Soc 75:421–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bouchet P, Rocroi J-P (2005) Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families (with a classification of gastropod families by J Frýda, B Hausdorf, W Ponder, A Valdés, A Warén). Malacologia 47:1–397Google Scholar
  21. Bouchet P, Rocroi J-P (2010) Nomenclator of bivalve families (with a classification of bivalve families by R Bieler, JG Carter, EV Coan). Malacologia 52:1–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brigham-Grette J, Hopkins DM, Ivanov VF, Basilyan AE, Benson SL, Heiser PA, Pushkar VS (2001) Last Interglacial (isotope stage 5) glacial and sea-level history of coastal Chukotka Peninsula and St. Lawrence Island. Western Beringia. Quat Sci Rev 20:419–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bullen RA (1901) Pleistocene Mollusca from the raised beach deposits of Perim Island. Proc Malacol Soc Lon 4:254–255Google Scholar
  24. Casazza LR (2017) Pleistocene reefs of the Egyptian Red Sea: Environmental change and community persistence. Peer J 5:e3504.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Charó MP, Gordillo S, Fucks EE, Giaconi LM (2014) Late Quaternary molluscs from the northern San Matías Gulf (Northern Patagonia, Argentina), Southwestern Atlantic: Faunistic changes and paleoenvironmental interpretation. Quatern Intern 352:26–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crame JA (1986) Late Pleistocene molluscan assemblages from the coral reefs of the Kenya coast. Coral Reefs 4:183–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dekker H, Orlin Z (2000) Check-list of Red Sea of Red Sea Mollusca. Spirula 47(suppl):1–46Google Scholar
  28. Dekkers AM, Dekker H (2016) A new species of Turbo from the Red Sea. Basteria 80:31–38Google Scholar
  29. Dullo W-C (1990) Facies, fossil record, and age of Pleistocene reefs from the Red Sea (Saudi Arabia). Facies 22:1–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. El-Asmar HM (1997) Quaternary isotope stratigraphy and paleoclimate of coral reef terraces, Gulf of Aqaba, South Sinai. Egypt. Quatern Sci Rev 16:911–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. El-Sorogy A (1997) Pleistocene coral reefs of southern Sinai, Egypt: Fossil record, facies analysis and diagenetic alterations. Middle East Research Center, Ain Shams University, Earth Science Series 11:17–36Google Scholar
  32. El-Sorogy A, Youssef M, Al-Sabrouty M, Al-Otaiby N (2014) Facies pattern and molluscan fauna of the Late Pleistocene raised coral reef of Rabigh area, Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia. Indian J Geo-Mar Sci 43:1571–1580Google Scholar
  33. Galindo LA, Puillandre N, Utge J, Lozouet P, Bouchet P (2016) The phylogeny and systematics of the Nassariidae revisited (Gastropoda, Buccinoidea). Mol Phylogenet Evol 99:337–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goreau TF, Goreau NI, Goreau TJ, Carter JG (1976) Fungiacava eilatensis burrows in fossil Fungia (Pleistocene) from the Sinai Peninsula. Proc R Soc B: Biol Sci 193:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gvirtzman G (1994) Fluctuations of sea-level during the past 400,000 years: The record of Sinai, Egypt (northern Red Sea). Coral Reefs 13:203–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gvirtzman G, Kronfeld J, Buchbinder B (1992) Dated coral reefs of southern Sinai (Red Sea) and their implication to the Late Quaternary sea-levels. Mar Geol 108:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hall WJ, Standen R (1907) On the Mollusca of a raised coral reef on the Red Sea coast. J Conch 12:65–68Google Scholar
  38. Hamed B, Bussert R, Dominik W (2016) Stratigraphy and evolution of emerged Pleistocene reefs at the Red Sea coast of Sudan. J Afr Earth Sci 114:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hartman G, Niemi TM, Ben-Avraham Z, Tibor G, Al-Zoubi A, Sade RA, Hall JK, Akawi E, Abueladas A, Al-Ruzouq R, Makowsky Y (2015) Distinct relict fringing reefs in the northern shelf of the Gulf of Elat/Aqaba: Markers of Quaternary eustatic and climatic episodes. Sedimentology 62:516–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoang CT, Taviani M (1991) Stratigraphic and tectonic implications of Uranium-series-dated coral reefs from uplifted Red Sea islands. Quatern Res 35:264–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Issel A (1869) Malacologia del Mar Rosso, ricerche zoologiche e paleontologiche. Volume I della Biblioteca Malacologica, Pisa, 387 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Issel A (1873) Iconografia di alcune conchiglie raccolte nel Golfo di Suez e sulle spiagge emerse del Mar Rosso. Tipografia Sordomuti, GenovaGoogle Scholar
  43. Janssen A (2007) Holoplanktonic Mollusca (Gastropoda) from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (Late Holocene-Recent). The Veliger 49:140–195Google Scholar
  44. Janssen R, Taviani M (2014) Taxonomic, ecological and historical considerations on the deep-water benthic mollusc fauna of the Red Sea. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: the formation, Morphology, Oceanography and environment of a Young Ocean Basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 511–528Google Scholar
  45. Janssen R, Zuschin M, Baal C (2011) Gastropods and their habitats from the northern Red Sea (Egypt: Safaga) Part 2: Caenogastropoda: Sorbeochonca and Littorinimorpha. Ann Naturhist Mus Wien 113:373–509Google Scholar
  46. Jousseaume F (1930) Cerithiidae de la Mer Rouge. Journ Conchyl 74:270–296Google Scholar
  47. Kappner I, Al-Moghrabi SM, Richter C (2000) Mucus-net feeding by the vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maxima in coral reefs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 204:309–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Leigh EG (1968) Modern and Fossil Marine Mollusca of the Red Sea Littoral at Mersa Alam. In: Butzer KW, Hansen CL (eds) Desert and River in Nubia. Geomorphology and Prehistoric Environments at te Aswan Reservoir. The University of Wisconsin Press, pp 499-508Google Scholar
  49. Lorenz F (1992) Pleistocene Cypraeacea from the vicinity of Hurghada, Egypt. Schr Malakozool 5, 19 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. Le Renard J, Sabelli B, Taviani M (1996) On Candinia (Sacoglossa: Juliidae), a new fossil genus of bivalved gastropods. J Paleont 70:230–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Macfadyen WA (1930) The Geology of the Farsan Islands, Gizan and Kamaran Island, Red Sea. Geol Mag 67:310–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marchesan M, Taviani M (1994) Biological modification of coral reed molluscan assemblages during a glacial-interglacial cycle (Red Sea, Egypt). Mem Descr Carta Geol It 52:57–58Google Scholar
  53. Mahmoud MAM, Yassien MH, Abdel-Razek FA (2012) Growth rate of the top shell Tectus dentatus (Forskål, 1775) under laboratory conditions, 1- Effect of density. IJESE 2:75–82Google Scholar
  54. Manaa AA, Jones BG, McGregor HV, Zhao J, Price DM (2016) Dating Quaternary raised coral terraces along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast. Mar Geol 374:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mansour AM, Madkour HA (2015) Raised coral reefs and sediments in the coastal area of the Red Sea. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: The Formation, Morphology, Oceanography and Environment of a Young Ocean Basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 379–393Google Scholar
  56. Martínez S, del Río CJ, Rojas A (2016) A Pleistocene (MIS 5e) mollusk assemblage from Ezeiza (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). J South Am Earth Sci 70:174–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mewis H (2016) Ecological stability of Indo-Pacific coral reefs during Quaternary climatic fluctuations: Case studies from Vanuatu and Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis (Dr. rer. nat.), Humboldt-Universität Berlin, 328 pp.  https://doi.org/10.18452/17456
  58. Mewis H, Kiessling W (2013) Environmentally controlled succession in a late Pleistocene coral reef (Sinai, Egypt). Coral Reefs 32:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mienis HK (1981) Note on the identity of Fissurella impedimentum Cooke, 1885 (Prosobranchia: Fissurellidae). J Conch 30:303–304Google Scholar
  60. Montesinos M, Ramos AGJ, Lomoschitz A, Coca J, Redondo A, Betancort JF, Meco J (2014) Extralimital Senegalese species during Marine Isotope Stages 5.5 and 11 in the Canary Islands (29° N): Sea surface temperature estimates. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimat Palaeoecol 410:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Muhs DR, Simmons KR, Kennedy V, Rockwell TK (2002) The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: timing and paleoclimate. Geol Soc Am Bull Bull 114:569–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nardini S (1937) Molluschi delle spiagge emerse del Mar Rosso e dell’Oceano Indiano. Parte II (Lamellibranchi). Palaeontogr It 37:225–247Google Scholar
  63. Newton RB (1900) Pleistocene shells from the raised beach deposits of the Red Sea. Geol Mag 7(500–514):544–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Oliver PG (1992) Bivalved Seashells of the Red Sea. Verlag Christa Hemmen & National Museum of Wales, Wiesbaden & Cardiff, p 330Google Scholar
  65. Plaziat J-C, Baltzer F, Choukri A, Conchon O, Freytet P, Orszag-Sperber F, Raguideau A, Reyss JL (1998) Quaternary marine and continental sedimentation in the northern Red Sea and Gulf of Suez (Egyptian coast): Influences of rift tectonics, climatic changes and sea-level fluctuations. In: Purser BH, Bosence DWJ (eds) Sedimentation and tectonics of rift basins: Red Sea-Gulf of Aden. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 537–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Plaziat J-C, Reyss J-L, Choukri A, Cazala C (2008) Diagenetic rejuvenation of raised coral reefs and precision of dating: The contribution of the Red Sea reefs to the question of reliability of the Uranium-series dating’s of middle to late Pleistocene key reef-terraces of the world. Notebooks on Geology 4:1–35Google Scholar
  67. Pulliandre N, Duda TF, Mayer C, Olivera BM, Bouchet P (2015) One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. J Mollus Stud 81:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pulliandre N, Bouchet P, Duda TF, Kauferstein S, Kohn AJ, Olivera BM, Watkins M, Meyer C (2014) Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the cone snails (Gastropoda, Conoidea). Mol Phylogenet Evol 78:290–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ragani L (1997) Echinoid fauna from the Quaternary fringing reef of Aqaba (Jordan). Palaeontogr It 84:1–19Google Scholar
  70. Reich S, Di Martino E, Todd JA, Wesselingh FP, Renema W (2015) Indirect paleo-seagrass indicators (IPSIs): A review. Earth-Sci Rev 143:161–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Reid DG (1989) Systematic revision of the Recent species of Peasiella Nevill, 1885 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae), with notes on the fossil species. The Nautilus 103:43–69Google Scholar
  72. Reyss J-L, Choukri A, Plaziat J-C, Purser BH (1993) Datations radiochimiques des récifs coralliens de la rive occidentale du Nord de la Mer Rouge, premières implications stratigraphiques et tectoniques. C R Acad Sci Paris 317:487–492Google Scholar
  73. Sabelli B, Taviani M (1984) The genus Nodilittorina Von Martens, 1897, in the Red Sea: New data. Boll Malacol 20:95–100Google Scholar
  74. Sabelli B, Taviani M (2014) The Making of the Mediterranean molluscan biodiversity. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds) The Mediterranean Sea: Its history and present challenges. Springer Science and Business Media, Dordrecht, pp 285–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Safriel U, Lipkin Y (1964) Note on the intertidal zonation of the rocky shores at Eilat (Red Sea, Israel). Isr J Zool 13:187–190Google Scholar
  76. Sasaki T (2008) Micromolluscs in Japan: Taxonomic composition, habitats, and future topics. Zoosymp 1:147–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Selli R (1944) I caratteri e le affinità delle malacofaune quaternarie del Mar Rosso. Giorn Geol 17:5–22Google Scholar
  78. Selli R(1973) Molluschi quaternari di Massaua e di Gibuti. In: Missione Geologica A.G.I.P. nella Dancalia meridionale e sugli altopiani Hararini (1936–1938), Docum Paleont Accad Naz Lincei Roma 4:151–444Google Scholar
  79. Sorokin YI (1995) Coral reef ecology. Ecological Studies 102, Springer, 466 ppGoogle Scholar
  80. Strasser A, Strohmenger C, Davaud E, Bach A (1992) Sequential evolution and diagenesis of Pleistocene coral reefs (South Sinai; Egypt). Sed Geol 78:59–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Taylor JD (1978) Faunal response to the instability of reef habitats: Pleistocene molluscan assemblages of Aldabra Atoll. Paleontology 21(1):1–30Google Scholar
  82. Taviani M (1982) Paleontological markers in Late Pleistocene coral reefs in the Red Sea. XI INQUA Congress, Moscow 1982, Abstract vol 1:307Google Scholar
  83. Taviani M (1994) The ever-changing climate: Late Quaternary paleoclimatic modifications of the Red Sea region as deduced from coastal and deep-sea geological data. In: Proceedings Egyptian-Italian seminar “On geosciences and archaeology in the Mediterranean countries. Geological Survey of Egypt, Special Publication 70:193–200Google Scholar
  84. Taviani M, Marchesan M, Quarantini M, Salmi M (1995) Reef-associated mollusk fauna of the Gulf of Suez (Egypt): last interglacial to present. Twelfith International Malacological Congress, Vigo, Spain, 3-8 September 1995, Abstract vol:333–334Google Scholar
  85. Taviani M (1998a) Post-Miocene reef faunas of the Red Sea: glacio-eustatic controls. In: Purser BH, Bosence DWJ (eds) Sedimentation and tectonics of rift basins: Red Sea-Gulf of Aden. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 574–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Taviani M (1998b) Stable tropics not so stable: Climatically driven extinctions of reef-associated molluscan assemblages (Red Sea and western Indian Ocean; last interglaciation to present). In: Camoin GF, Davis G (eds) Reefs and carbonate platforms in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Spec Pub Int Assoc Sedimentol 25:69–76Google Scholar
  87. Taviani M (2015) Unpersisting Persististrombus: A Mediterranean story. Viaraea 42:9–18Google Scholar
  88. Taviani M, Montagna P, Rasul NMA, Bosworth W, Angeletti L (this volume). Pleistocene coral reef terraces on the Saudi Arabian side of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red SeaGoogle Scholar
  89. Walter RC, Buffler RT, Bruggemann JH, Guillaume MMM, Berhe SM, Negassi B, Libsekal Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, von Cosel R, Néraudeau D, Gagnon M (2000) Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial. Nature 405:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. WoRMS Editorial Board (2017) World Register of Marine Species. Available from http://www.marinespecies.org at VLIZ. Accessed 2017-03-05.  https://doi.org/10.14284/170
  91. Zauner S, Zuschin M (2016) Diversity, habitats and size-frequency distribution of the gastropod genus Conus at Dahab in the Gulf of Aqaba, Northern Red Sea. Zool Middle East 62:125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zuschin M, Ebner C (2015a) Compositional fidelity of death assemblages from a coral reef-associated tidal-flat and shallow lagoon in the northern Red Sea. Palaios 30:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zuschin M, Ebner C (2015b) Actuopaleontological characterization and molluscan biodiversity of a protected tidal flat and shallow subtidal at the northern Red Sea. Facies 61:5.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10347-015-0428-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zuschin M, Oliver PG (2003) Bivalves and bivalve habitats in the northern Red Sea: The northern Bay of Safaga (Red Sea, Egypt): An actuopalaeontological approach. VI. Bivalvia, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, p 304Google Scholar
  95. Zuschin M, Oliver PG (2005) Diversity patterns of bivalves in a coral dominated shallow-water bay in the northern Red Sea–high species richness on a local scale. Mar Biol Res 1:396–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zuschin M, Stachowitsch M (2007) The distribution of molluscan assemblages and their postmortem fate on coral reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba (northern Red Sea). Mar Biol 151:2217–2230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zuschin M, Hohenegger J, Steininger FF (2000) A comparison of living and dead molluscs on coral reef associated hard substrata in the northern Red Sea—implications for the fossil record: Palaeogeog Palaeoclimat Palaeoecol 159:167–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zuschin M, Hohenegger J, Steininger FF (2001) Molluscan assemblages on coral reefs and associated hard substrata in the northern Red Sea. Coral Reef 20:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zuschin M, Janssen R, Baal C (2009) Gastropods and their habitats from the northern Red Sea (Egypt: Safaga) Part 1: Patellogastropoda, Vetigastropoda and Cycloneritimorpha. Ann Naturhist Mus Wien 111A:73–158Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorenzo Angeletti
    • 1
  • Najeeb M. A. Rasul
    • 2
  • Marco Taviani
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR-CNR)BolognaItaly
  2. 2.Center for Marine Geology, Saudi Geological SurveyJeddahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Biology DepartmentWoods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA
  4. 4.Stazione Zoologica Anton DohrnNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations