Advertisement

Salt Formation, Accumulation, and Expulsion Processes During Ocean Rifting—New Insight Gained from the Red Sea

  • Martin Hovland
  • Håkon Rueslåtten
  • Hans Konrad Johnsen
Chapter

Abstract

Recent observations of thick carpets of mobile salt slurries on the Red Sea floor (Salt Flows) and huge accumulations of salts in the sub-surface (‘Salt Walls’ and ‘Salt Ridges’), associated with topographical lows (Deeps), suggest that the Red Sea currently produces new volumes of brines and solid salts underground. The salt producing zone is focused around the central rifting axis and represents about 15% of the entire Red Sea area. The brines and solid salts are formed by boiling and supercritical phase separation in forced convection cells (hydrothermal circulation), located above shallow-seated magmatic intrusions along the spreading axis. The descending water of the convection cells attains increasing pressure and temperature, resulting in supercritical water conditions, giving rise to phase separation. Salts are therefore deposited underground and accumulate in the heavily fractured country rocks in the rift zone. Dense brines also migrate further down and concentrate beyond saturation. Conversely, the ascending limbs of the hydrothermal cells consist of low salinity vapor which condenses upon cooling, hence dissolving previously deposited salts. The different solubilities of sea salts lead to a refining of the salt types. When reaching the seafloor, the newly formed brines are cooled further, eventually becoming oversaturated in salts, which results in precipitation onto the seafloor. The dense brine layers also protect seafloor salts from re-dissolution by normal seawater. In the continued process, brines will migrate through salt deposits (as they build up) eventually giving rise to salt glaciers, salt walls, salt pinnacles, and ‘diapirs’ (injectites). Ores, hydrocarbons and clays are often associated with salts, being part of such a robust, self-organizing and self-sustaining hydrothermal system. Although this model arose from geological and geophysical observations performed in the Red Sea area, it may also be applicable to present and past rift zones worldwide, especially those with low spreading rates, in their early rifting stage. In addition to solar evaporation of seawater, our model also considers the significance of temporal variations in mass- and heat-flow and its impact on hydrothermal flow that governs underground salt formation, accumulation and mobility.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Saudi Geological Survey, for their initiative and invitation to participate in the Red Sea book project, Charlotte B. Schreiber for keeping us updated on the Messinian Salinity Crisis debate, and, not least, Vittorio Scribano, Fabio Manuella and an anonymous reviewer for constructive review comments and suggestions. Najeeb Rasul is thanked for his efforts in compiling the Red Sea book.

References

  1. Aharon P, Roberts HH, Snelling R (1992) Submarine venting of brines in the deep Gulf of Mexico: observations and geochemistry. Geology 20:483–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anschutz P, Blanc G, Chatin F, Geiller M, Pierret M-C (1999) Hydrographic changes during 20 years in the brine-filled basins of the Red Sea. Deep Sea Res Part I: Oceanographic Res Papers 46(10):1779–1792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anschutz P (2015) Hydrothermal activity and paleoenvironments of the Atlantis II Deep. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: The formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 235–249.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45201-1_14Google Scholar
  4. Anschutz P, Blanc G, Monnin C, Boulègue J (2000) Geochemical dynamics of the Atlantis II Deep (Red Sea). II: pore water composition of metalliferous sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:3995–4006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Augustin N, Devey CW, van der Zwan FM, Feldens P, Tominaga M, Bantan RA, Kwasnitschka T (2014) The rifting to spreading transition in the Red Sea. Earth Planet Sci Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Augustin N, van der Zwan FM, Devey CW, Ligi M, Kwasnitschka T, Feldens P, Bantan RA, Basaham AS (2016) Geomorphology of the Central Red Sea Rift: Determining spreading processes. J Geomorphology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.08.028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barberi F, Varet J (1971) The Erta Ale volcanic range (Danakil depression, northern Afar, Ethiopia). Bull Volcanology 34(4):848–917.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02596805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bischoff JL, Rosenbauer RJ (1989) Salinity variations in submarine hydrothermal systems by layered double-diffusive convection. J Geol 97:613–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blum N, Puchelt H (1991) Sedimentary-hosted polymetallic massive sulfide deposits of the Kebrit and Shaban Deeps, Red Sea. Miner Deposita 26:217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonatti E (1985) Punctiform initiation of seafloor spreading in the Red Sea during transition from a continent to an oceanic rift. Nature 316:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonatti E, Cipriani A, Lupi L (2015) The Red Sea: Birth of an ocean. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: The formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 29–44Google Scholar
  12. Bosworth W (2015) Geological evolution of the Red Sea: Historical background, review, and synthesis. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: The formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 45–78Google Scholar
  13. Bower A (2009) Field report. R/V Oceanus Voyage 449–6 Red Sea. WHOI-KAUST-CTR 2009-1, 40 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Brooks RR, Kaplan IR, Peterson MNA (1969) Trace element composition of Red Sea geothermal brine and interstitial water. In: Degens ET, Ross DA (eds) Hot brines and recent heavy metal deposits in the Red Sea. Springer, pp 180–203Google Scholar
  15. Cochran JR (2005) Northern Red Sea: Nucleation of an oceanic spreading center within a continental rift. Geochem Geophys Geosys, AGU  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GC000826, Q03006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cochran JR, Martinez F, Steckler MS, Hobart MA (1986) Conrad Deep: A new Northern Red Sea Deep. Origin and implications for continental rifting. Earth Planet Sci Lett 78:18–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coumou D, Driesner T, Heinrich CA (2008) The structure and dynamics of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Science 321:1825–1828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coumou D, Driesner T, Weis P, Heinrich CA (2009) Phase separation, brine formation, and salinity variation at Black Smoker hydrothermal systems. J Geophys Res 114:B03212Google Scholar
  19. Craig H (1969) Geochemistry and origin of the Red Sea brines. In: Degens ET, Ross DA (eds) Hot brines and recent heavy metal deposits in the Red Sea. Springer, pp 208–242Google Scholar
  20. Davison I, Anderson L, Nuttall P (2012) Salt deposition, loading and gravity drainage in the Campos and Santos salt basins. In: Alsop GI, Archer SG, Hartley AJ, Grant NT, Hodgkinson R (eds) Salt tectonics, sediments and prospectivity. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 363, pp 159–174. doi:10.1144 /SP363.8Google Scholar
  21. Degens ET, Ross DA (1969) Hot brines and recent heavy metal deposits in the Red Sea. Springer Verlag, New York, pp 535–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dias JL (2005) Tectônica, estratigrafia e sedimentação no Andar Aptiano da margem leste Brasileira: Boletim de Geociencias Petrobras 13, pp 7–25Google Scholar
  23. Driesner T (2007) The system H2O–NaCl. Part II: Correlations for molar volume, enthalpy, and isobaric heat capacity from 0 to 1000 & #xB0;C, 1 to 5000 bar, and 0 to 1 XNaCl. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:4902–4919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Driesner T, Heinrich CA (2007) The system NaCl-H2O. I. Correlation formulae for phase relations in temperature-pressure-composition space from 0 to 1000 & #xB0;C, 0 to 5000 bar, and 0 to 1 XNaCl. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:4880–4901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ehrhardt A, Hübscher C (2015) The northern Red Sea in transition from rifting to drifting—Lessons learned from ocean deeps. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: The formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 99–121Google Scholar
  26. Ehrhardt A, Hübscher C, Gajewski D (2005) Conrad Deep, northern Red Sea: Development of an early stage ocean deep within the axial depression. Tectonophysics 411:19–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ehgartner B, Neal J, Hinkebein T (1998) Gas release from salt. Nec Researchindex, www.citeseer.nj.nec.com
  28. Erickson AJ, Simmons G (1969) Thermal measurements in the Red Sea hot brine pools. In: Degens ET, Ross DA (eds) Hot brines and recent heavy metal deposits in the Red Sea. Springer, pp 114–121Google Scholar
  29. Feldens P, Mitchell NC (2015) Salt flows in the Central Red Sea. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: The formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, pp 205–218.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45201-1_14Google Scholar
  30. Feldens P, Schmidt M, Mücke I, Augustin N, Al-Farawati R, Faber E (2016) Expelled subsalt fluids form a pockmark field in the eastern Red Sea. Geo-Marine Lett 36(5):339–352.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367016-0451-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flemings PB, Behrmann I, John C (2005) Gulf of Mexico hydrogeology-overpressure and slope stability, seeps, and shallow-water flow. IODP Scientific Prospectus 308. http://iodp.tamu.edu/publications/SP/308SP/308SP.PDF
  32. Fontaine FJ, Wilcock WSD (2006) Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. J Geophys Res 111:B06102.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fryer P, Fryer GJ (1987) Origins of nonvolcanic seamounts in a forearc environment. In: Keating B, Fryer P, Batiza R (eds) Seamounts, Islands, and Atolls. Am Geophys Union, Geophys Monograph 43, pp 61–69Google Scholar
  34. Gay A, Takano Y, Gilhooly WP III, Berndt C, Heeschen K, Suzuki N, Saegusa S, Nakagawa F, Tsunogai U, Jiang SY, Lopez M (2011) Geophysical and geochemical evidence of large scale fluid flow within shallow sediments in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Louisiana. Geofluids 11:34–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ghanbarzadeh S, Hesse MA, Prodanovic M, Gardner JE (2015) Deformation-assisted fluid percolation in rock salt. Science 350(6264):1069–1072.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac8747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Girdler RW (1984) The evolution of the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea in space and time. Deep-Sea Res 31:747–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Girdler RW (1985) Problems concerning the evolution of oceanic lithosphere in the northern Red Sea. Tectonophysics 116:7–11Google Scholar
  38. Girdler RW, Whitmarsh RB (1974) Miocene evaporites in Red Sea cores, their relevance to the problem of the width and age of oceanic crust beneath the Red Sea. In: Whitmarsh RB, Weser PE, Ross DA (eds) Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 23. US Government Printing Office, Washington, pp 913–921Google Scholar
  39. Gruen G, Weis P, Driesner T, Heinrich CA, de Ronde CE (2014) Hydrodynamic modeling of magmatic–hydrothermal activity at submarine arc volcanoes, with implications for ore formation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 404:307–318.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.07.041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heine C, Zoethout J, Müller RD (2013) Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift. Solid Earth :215–253.  https://doi.org/10.5194/se-4-215-2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holness MB, Lewis S (1997) The structure of halite-brine interface inferred from pressure and temperature variations of equilibrium dihedral angles in the halite-H2O-CO2 system. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61(4):795–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holwerda JG, Hutchinson RW (1968) Potash-bearing evaporites in the Danakil area. Ethiopia. Econ Geol 63(2):124–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hovland M, Jensen S, Fichler C (2012) Methane and minor oil macro-seep systems — Their complexity and environmental significance. Marine Geol 332–334:163–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2012.02.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hovland M, Judd AG (1988) Seabed pockmarks and seepages—impact on geology, biology and the marine environment. Graham & Trotman Ltd, London, p 293Google Scholar
  45. Hovland M, Kutznetsova T, Rueslåtten H, Kvamme B, Johnsen HK, Fladmark GE, Hebach A (2006a) Sub-surface precipitation of salts in supercritical seawater. Basin Res 18(2):221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hovland M, Rueslåtten H, Johnsen HK, Kvamme B, Kutznetsova T (2006b) Salt formation associated with sub-surface boiling and supercritical water. Marine Petrol Geol 23:855–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hovland M, Rueslåtten H, Johnsen HK (2015) Red Sea salt formations—A result of hydrothermal processes. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: The formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 187–203Google Scholar
  48. Hovland M, Rueslåtten H, Johnsen HK, Manuella F (2016) Possible role of salt accumulations in Wilson cycles (abstract). Proc Arthur Holmes Meeting, London, May 23–25, 2016. Geol Soc LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Hovland M, Rueslåtten H, Johnsen HK (2018a) Large salt accumulations as a consequence of hydrothermal processes associated with ‘Wilson cycles’. A review Part 1: Towards a new understanding. Mar Pet Geol 92:987–1009.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2017.12.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hovland M, Rueslåtten H, Johnsen HK (2018b) Large salt accumulations as a consequence of hydrothermal processes associated with 'Wilson cycles'. A review Part 2: Application of a new salt-forming model on selected cases. Mar Pet Geol 92:128–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2018.02.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hoy RB, Foose RM, O’Neill BJ (1962) Structure of Winnfield salt dome, Winn Parish, Louisiana. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 46:1444–1459Google Scholar
  52. Hsü KJ, Montadert L, Bernoulli D, Cita MB, Erickson A, Garrison RE, Kidd RB, Mèlierés F, Müller C, Wright R (1977) History of the Mediterranean salinity crisis. Nature 267:399–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hübner A, De Lange GJ, Dittmer J, Halbach P (2003) Geochemistry of an exotic sediment layer above a sapropel S-1: Mud expulsion from the Urania Basin, eastern Mediterranean? Marine Geol 197:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ings SJ, Beaumont C (2010) Shortening viscous pressure ridges, a solution to the enigma of initiating salt ‘withdrawal’ minibasins. Geology 38(4):339–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Judd A, Hovland M (2007) Seabed fluid flow, impact on geology, biology and the marine environment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p 300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kupfer DH (1976) Shear zones inside Gulf Coast salt stocks help to delineate spines of movement. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 60(9):1434–1447Google Scholar
  57. Kupfer DH, Lock BE, Schank PR (1998) Anomalous zones within the salt at Weeks Island, Louisiana. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Trans XLVIII:181–191Google Scholar
  58. Kyle RJ, Ulrich MR, Gose WA (1987) Textural and paleomagnetic evidence for the mechanism and timing of anhydrite cap rock formation, Winnfield salt dome, Louisiana. In: Lerche I, O’Brien JJ (eds) Dynamical geology of salt and related structures. Academic Press, New York, pp 497–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lecumberri-Sanchez P, Steele-MacInnis M, Weis P, Driesner T, Bodnar RJ (2015) Salt precipitation in magmatic-hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal plutons. Geology 43(12):1063–1066.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G37163.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lees GM (1931) Salt—some depositional and deformational problems. Inst Petrol Technologists J 17(91):259–280Google Scholar
  61. Lewis S, Holness M (1996) Equilibrium halite-H2O dihedral angles: High rock-salt permeability in the shallow crust? Geology 24:432–434Google Scholar
  62. Ligi M, Bonatti E, Rasul NMA (2015) Seafloor spreading initiation: Geophysical and geochemical constraints from the Thetis and Nereus Deeps, Central Red Sea. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: The formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 79–98Google Scholar
  63. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422:878–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lonsdale P (1977) Clustering of suspension-feeding macrobenthos near abyssal hydrothermal vents at oceanic spreading centers. Deep Sea Res 24, 857IN3859–3858IN4863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Loof KM (1999) Microstructural and structural analysis of three salt structures of different tectonic regimes. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 283 pp (excerpts on the Internet)Google Scholar
  66. Lowell RP, Germanovich LN (1997) Evolution of a brine-saturated layer at the base of a ridge-crest hydrothermal system. J Geophys Res 102:10245–10255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lowell RP, Rona PA, Kolandaivelu K (2014) Hydrothermal activity. Elsevier Reference module, Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-4095489.09132-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lugli S, Manzi V, Roveri M, Schreiber BC (2015) The deep record of the Messinian salinity crisis: Evidence of a non-desiccated Mediterranean Sea. Palaeogeog Palaeoclimat Palaeoecol 433:201–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lupton JE, Weiss RF, Craig H (1977) Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines. Nature 266:244–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mart Y, Ross DA (1987) Post-Miocene rifting and diapirism in the northern Red Sea. Marine Geol 74:173–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Miller AR, Densmore CD, Degens ET, Hathaway JC, Manheim FT, McFarlin PF, Pocklington R, Jokela A (1966) Hot brines and recent iron deposits in deeps of the Red Sea. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 30:341–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Miller NC, Lizarralde D, Harding A, Kent G (2009) Constraints on early Gulf of California rifting from seismic images across the eastern margin of Guaymas Basin. AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract, Poster T31A-1783Google Scholar
  73. Mitchell NC, Ligi M, Ferrante V, Bonatti E, Rutter E (2010) Submarine salt flows in the central Red Sea. Geol Soc Am Bull 122(5/6):701–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mitchell NC, Schmidt M, Ligi M (2011) Comment on “Formation of Thetis Deep metal-rich sediments in the absence of brines, Red Sea” by Pierret et al. (2010). J Geochem Explor 108:112–113Google Scholar
  75. Mohriak WU (2001) Salt tectonics, volcanic centers, fracture zones and their relationship with the origin and evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean: Geophysical evidence in the Brazilian and West African margins. 7th International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society, Salvador, Expanded Abstracts, p 1594Google Scholar
  76. Mohriak WU, Nóbrega M, Odegard ME, Gomes BS, Dickson WG (2010) Geological and geophysical interpretation of the Rio Grande Rise, southeastern Brazilian margin: Extensional tectonics and rifting of continental and oceanic crusts. Petrol Geosci 16:231–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mohriak WU, Szatmari P, Anjos S (2012) Salt: Geology and tectonics of selected Brazilian basins in their global context. In: Alsop GI, Archer SG, Hartley AJ, Grant NT, Hodgkinson (eds) Salt Tectonics, Sediments and Prospectivity. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 363, pp 131–158Google Scholar
  78. Monnin C, Ramboz C (1996) The anhydrite saturation index of the Red Sea ponded brines and sediment pore waters of the Red Sea deeps. Chem Geol 127:141–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Momenzadeh M (1990) Saline deposits and alkaline magmatism: A genetic model. J Petrol Geol 13(3):341–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Norton IO, Carruthers DT, Hudec MR (2015) Rift to drift transition in the South Atlantic salt basins: A new flavor of oceanic crust. Geology 44(1):55–58.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G37265.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pierret MC, Clauer N, Bosch D, Blanc G (2010) Formation of Thetis Deep metal-rich sediments in the absence of brines, Red Sea. J Geochem Explor 104:12–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pirajno F (2009) Hydrothermal processes and mineral systems. Springer, Berlin, p 1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF, Nawab ZA (2015) Introduction to the Red Sea: Its origin, structure, and environment. In: Rasul NMA, Stewart ICF (eds) The Red Sea: The formation, morphology, oceanography and environment of a young ocean basin. Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 1–28Google Scholar
  84. Ruppel C, Dickens GR, Castellini DG, Gilhooly W, Lizarralde D (2005) Heat and salt inhibition of gas hydrate formation in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Geophys Res Lett 32:L04605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schoenherr J, Littke R, Urai JL, Kukla PA, Rawahi Z (2007a) Polyphase thermal evolution in the infra-Cambrian Ara Group (South Oman Salt Basin) as deduced by maturity of solid reservoir bitumen. Organic Geochem 38:1293–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schoenherr J, Urai JL, Kukla PA, Littke R, Schléder Z, Larroque J-M, Newall MJ, Al-Abry N, Al-Siyabi H, Rawahi Z (2007b) Limits to the sealing capacity of rock salt: A case study of the infra-Cambrian Ara salt from the south Oman salt basin. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 91(11):1541–1557Google Scholar
  87. Schmalz RF (1969) Deep-water evaporite deposition: A genetic model. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 53(4):798–823Google Scholar
  88. Scott S, Driesner T, Weis P (2017) Boiling and condensation of saline geothermal fluids above magmatic intrusions. Geophys Res Lett 44(4):1696–1705.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL071891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Scribano V, Viccaro M (2014) En-route formation of highly silica-undersaturated melts through interaction between ascending basalt and serpentinite-related saline brines: Inference from Hyblean cenozoic nephelinites, Sicily. Nicolosi (Catania) 29 Miscellanea INGV ISSN 2039–6651, vol 25, p 107Google Scholar
  90. Scribano V, Carbone S, Manuella FC, Hovland M, Rueslåtten H, Johnsen H-K (2017) Origin of salt giants in abyssal serpentinite systems. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-017-1448-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Searle RC, Ross DA (1975) A geophysical study of the Red Sea axial trough between 2.5º and 22ºN. Geophys J R Astron Soc 43:555–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Singh S, Lowell RP, Lewis KC (2013) Numerical modeling of phase separation at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca ridge. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 14(10):4021–4034.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ggge.20249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stoffers P, Kühn R (1974) Red Sea evaporites: A petrographic and geochemical study. In: Whitmarsh RB, Weser OE, Ross DA et al (eds) Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 23. US Govt Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 821–847Google Scholar
  94. Talbot C (1978) Halokinesis and thermal convection. Nature 273:739–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Talbot CJ (1998) Extrusions of hormuz salt in Iran Geol Soc Lond Special Publ 143:315–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Talbot CJ (2007) Hydrothermal salt—but how much?. Marine Petrol Geol, Discussion.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.Marpetgeo.2007.05.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Underhill JR (2009) Role of intrusion-induced salt mobility in controlling the formation of the enigmatic ‘Silverpit Crater’, UK southern North Sea. Petrol Geosci 15:197–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Van den Belt FJ, de Boer PL (2007) Shallow-basin model for ‘saline giants’ based on isostacy-driven subsidence. In: Smith ND, Rogers J (eds) Fluvial sedimentology VI. Internat Assoc Sedimentologists Spec Publ 38, pp 241–252Google Scholar
  99. Von Damm KL (1995) Controls on the chemistry and temporal variability of seafloor hydrothermal fluids. In: Humphris SE, Zierenberg RA, Mullineaux LS, Thompson RE (eds) Seafloor hydrothermal systems: Physical, chemical, and biological interactions. Am Geophys Union, Washington, DC, Geophys Monograph Series 91, pp 222–247Google Scholar
  100. Von Damm KL, Oosting SE, Kozlowski R, Buttermore LG, Colodner D, Edmonds HN, Edmond JM, Grebmeir JM (1995) Evolution of East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vent fluids following a volcanic eruption. Nature 375:47–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wallmann K, Suess E, Westbrook GH, Winckler G, Cita M (1997) Salty brines on the Mediterranean Sea floor. Nature 387:31–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Warren JK (2006) Evaporites: Sediments, resources and hydrocarbons. Springer, 1023 ppGoogle Scholar
  103. Warren JK (2010) Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits. Earth-Sci Rev 98:217–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Whitmarsh RB, Weser PE, Ross DA (1973) Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, vol 23. U.S. Govt Printing Office, Washington, pp 821–847Google Scholar
  105. Winckler G, Aeschbach-Hertig W, Kipfer R, Botz R, Rübel AP, Bayer R, Stoffers P (2001) Constraints on origin and evolution of Red Sea brines from helium and argon isotopes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 184:671–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Hovland
    • 1
  • Håkon Rueslåtten
    • 2
  • Hans Konrad Johnsen
    • 2
  1. 1.SolaNorway
  2. 2.TrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations