Fold-Thrust Belt Architecture and Structural Evolution of the Northern Part of the Nallamalai Fold Belt, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

  • Vikash TripathyEmail author
  • Satyapal
  • S. K. Mitra
  • V. V. Sesha Sai
Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)


Two major structural events characterize the tectonic evolution of the northern part of the Nallamalai Fold Belt (NFB): (1) the Late Paleoproterozoic or Early Mesoproterozoic Dn1 compression due to the thrusting of granitic gneiss and Nellore Schist Belt (NSB) over the eastern part of the NFB possibly related to the Columbia supercontinental activities; and (2) the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian Dn2 deformation in the NFB due to its overthrust movement on the western and northern part of the undeformed Cuddapah basin (i.e., the Kurnool and the Palnad sub-basins). The late structures with NW to N vergent hanging wall lithounits (NFB) are represented by several map-scale imbricate thrust sheets, flat and ramp structures, asymmetrical to overturned folds, and structures associated with nappe. The nature of deformation in the footwall (Kurnool Group in Palnad sub-basin) and the hanging wall (NFB) structures are also elaborated in view of the possible regional tectonics. Progressive oroclinal model is also proposed here to explain the changes in the structural trend of NFB from NE to E. The variations of the NFB structures in conjunction with the regional structures connotes of thin-skinned deformation during Pan-African period, which are examined to constrain the possible plate kinematics related to the convergence of East Gondwana fragments.


Nallamalai Fold Belt (NFB) Nellore Schist Belt (NSB) Palnad sub-basin Pan-African orogeny Orocline Fold-and-thrust belt 



The authors are grateful to the Director General, Geological Survey of India and Additional Director General, GSI, SR, Hyderabad for kindly according permission to publish the work. This work is part of the GSI project for FS 2012-14 at state unit: Andhra Pradesh. The authors are grateful to Dr. Soumyajit Mukherjee (IIT, Bombay), Editor for his kind invitation for contribution to this book. This manuscript benefited greatly from the constructive reviews and criticisms by editor and an anonymous reviewer. The views expressed in this paper are of authors and not necessarily of GSI. Vide Mukherjee et al. (in press) for recent tectonic updates from the southern portion of the Cuddapah basin, and Goswami and Upadhyay (2019) in a similar context. Mukherjee (2019) summarizes this work.


  1. Acharyya SK, Roy A (2000) Tectonothermal history of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone and reactivation of major faults/shear zones. Journal of the Geological Society of India 55:239–256Google Scholar
  2. Anand M, Gibson SA, Subbarao KV, Kelley SP, Dickin AP (2003) Early proterozoic melt generation processes beneath the intra-cratonic Cuddapah basin, Southern India. Journal of Petrology 44, 2139–2171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhadra S, Gupta S, Banerjee M (2004) Structural evolution across the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt Bastar craton boundary: hot over cold thrusting in an ancient collision zone. Journal of Structural Geology 26, 233–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhaskar Rao YJ, Pantulu GVC, Damodar Reddy V, Gopalan K (1995) Time ofearly sedimentation and volcanism in the proterozoic Cuddapah basin, South India: evidence from Rb-Sr age of Pulivendla mafic sill. Geological Society of India Memoirs 33, 329–338Google Scholar
  5. Bhattacharya S (1996) Eastern Ghats granulite terrain of India: an overview. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences 14, 165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhattacharya S, Das P, Chaudhary AK, Saw AK (2010) Mafic granulite xenoliths in the eastern ghats granulite belt: implications for lower crustal processes in the Southeastern Indian Peninsula. Indian Journal of Geology 80, 55–69Google Scholar
  7. Bhowmik SK, Roy A (2003) Garnetiferous metabasites from the Sausar MobileBelt: petrology, P-T path and implications for the tectonothermal evolution of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone. Journal of Petrology 44, 387–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhowmik SK, Pal T, Roy A, Pant NC (1999) Evidence for Pre-Grenvillian high-pressure granulite metamorphism from the northern margin of the Sausarmobile belt in Central India. Geological Society of India 53, 385–399Google Scholar
  9. Carey SW (1955) The orocline concept in geotectonics. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 89, 255–288Google Scholar
  10. Carreras J, Druguet E, Griera A (2005) Shear zone-related folds. Journal of Structural Geology 27, 1229–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chakraborti S (2006) Analysis of fold-and-thrust structures in parts of Neoproterozoic Palnad Sub-basin, Cuddapah basin, south India. Ph.D. thesis, University of CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  12. Chakraborti S, Saha D (2009) Tectonic stresses and thin-skinned tectonics in a Proterozoic fold-and-thrust belt read from calcite mylonites in the Cuddapah basin, south India. Indian Journal of Geology 78, 37–54Google Scholar
  13. Chalapathi Rao NV, Miller JA, Gibson SA, Pyle DM, Madhavan V (1999) Precise40Ar/39Ar age determinations of the Kotakonda kimberlite and Chelima lamproite, India: implication for the mafic dyke swarm emplacement in the Eastern Dharwar craton. Journal of Geological Society of India 53, 425–432Google Scholar
  14. Chalapathi Rao NV, Fu-Yuan Wu, Srinivas M (2012) Mesoproterozoic emplacement and enriched mantle derivation of the Racherla alkali syenite, Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah Basin, southern India: insights from in situ Sr–Nd isotopic analysis on apatite. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 365, 185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chetty TRK (2011) Tectonics of proterozoic Cuddapah Basin, Southern India: a conceptual model. Journal Geological Society of India 78, 446–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Collins A, Patranabis-Deb S, Alexander E, Bertram CN, Falster GM, Gore RJ, Mackintosh J, Dhang PC, Saha D, Payne JL, Jourdan F, Backé G, Halverson GP, Wade BP (2015) Detrital mineral age, radiogenic isotopic stratigraphy and tectonic significance of the Cuddapah Basin, India. Gondwana Research 28, 1294–1309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crawford AR, Compston W (1973) The age of the Cuddapah and Kurnool systems, Southern India. Journal of Geological Society of Australia 19, 453–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Das S, Shukla D, Bhattacharjee S, Mitra SK (2015) Age constraints of Udayagiri Domain of Nellore schist belt by xenotime dating around Pamuru, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh. Geological Society of India 85, 289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dasgupta PK, Biswas A (2006) Rhythms in Proterozoic sedimentation: an example from Peninsular India. Satish Serial Publishing House, Delhi, p 340Google Scholar
  20. Dasgupta S, Sengupta P (2003) Indo-Antarctic correlation: a perspective from the Eastern Ghats Belt. In: Yoshida M, Windley BF, Dasgupta S (eds) Proterozoic East Gondwana: supercontinent assembly and breakup. Geological Society London, Special Publication, 206, 131–143Google Scholar
  21. Dharma Rao CV, Santosh M, Wu Yuan-Bao (2010) Mesoproterozoic ophiolitic mélange from the SE periphery of the Indian plate: U-Pb zircon ages and tectonic implications. Gondwana Research. Scholar
  22. Doblas M (1998) Slickenside kinematic indicators. Tectonophysics 295, 187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dobmeier CJ, Raith MM (2003) Crustal architecture and evolution of the Eastern Ghats Belt and adjacent regions of India. In: Yoshida M, Windley BF, Dasgupta S (eds) Proterozoic East Gondwana: supercontinent assembly and breakup, 206. Geological Society, Special Publications, London, pp 145–168Google Scholar
  24. Dobmeier C, Lütke S, Hammerschmidt H, Mezger K (2006) Emplacement and deformation of the Vinukonda granite—implications for the geological evolution of peninsular India and for Rodinia reconstructions. Precambrian Research 146, 165–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. French JE, Heaman LM, Chacko T, Srivastava RK (2008) 1891–1883 Ma SouthernBastar–Cuddapah mafic igneous events, India: a newly recognized large igneous province. Precambrian Research 160, 308–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Geological Survey of India (1990) Geological quadrangle map of degree sheet No. 57IGoogle Scholar
  27. Goswami S, Upadhyay PK (2019) Tectonic history of the granitoids and Kadiri schist belt in the SW of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. In: Mukherjee S (ed) Tectonics and structural geology: Indian context. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, pp 253–278. ISBN 978-3-319-99340-9Google Scholar
  28. Goswami S, Mukherjee A, Zakaulla S, Rai AK (2016) Stress states, faulting and their effects on the Papaghni Group, Cuddapah Basin, India: a study along Giddankivaripalle-Madyalabodu tract. Indian Journal of Geosciences 70, 17–33Google Scholar
  29. Gupta JN, Pandey BK, Chabria T, Banerjee DC, Jayaram KMV (1984) Rb–Sr geochronological studies on the granites of Vinukonda and Kanigiri, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Precambrian Research 26, 105–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henderson B, Collins AS, Payne J, Forbes C, Saha D (2014) Geologically constraining India in Columbia: the age, isotopic provenance and geochemistry of the protoliths of the Ongole Domain, Southern Eastern Ghats, India. Gondwana Research 26, 888–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jain SC, Yedekar DB, Nair KKK (1991) Central India shear zone: a major precambrian crustal boundary. Journal of Geological Society of India 37, 521–531Google Scholar
  32. Johnston ST, Weil AB, Gutiérrez-Alonso G (2013) Oroclines: thick and thin. Geological Society of America Bulletin 125, 643–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Joy S, Jelsma HA, Preston RF, Kota S (2012) Geology and diamond provenance of the Proterozoic Banganapalle conglomerates, Kurnool Group, India. From: In: Mazumder R, Saha D (eds) Palaeoproterozoic of India. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 365, pp 197–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kumar Vijaya, Leelanandam C (2008) Evolution of the Eastern Ghats belt, India: a plate tectonic perspective. Journal of Geological Society of India 72, 720–749Google Scholar
  35. Kumar A, Kumari VMP, Dayal AM, Murthy DSN, Gopalan K (1993) Rb–Sr ages of proterozoic kimberlites of india: evidence for contemporaneous emplacement. Precambrian Research 79, 363–369Google Scholar
  36. Leelanandam C (1989) The Prakasam Alkaline Province in Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal Geological Society of India 34, 25–45Google Scholar
  37. Leelanandam C, Burke K, Ashwal LD, Webb SJ (2006) Proterozoic mountain building in Peninsular India: an analysis based primarily on alkaline rock distribution. Geological Magazine 143, 195–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Matin A (2014) Tectonics in the Cuddapah fold-thrust belt in the Indian shield, Andhra Pradesh, India and its implication on the crustal amalgamation of India and Rayner craton of Antarctica during Neoproterozoic orogenesis. International Journal of Earth Science 103, 7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Matin A, Guha J (1996) Structural geometry of the rocks of the southern part of the Nallamalai Fold Belt, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh. Journal Geological Society of India 47, 535–545Google Scholar
  40. Means WD (1987) A newly recognized type of slickenside striation. Journal of Sturctural Geology 9, 585–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Meijerink AMJ, Rao DP, Rupke J (1984) Stratigraphic and Structural development of the Precambrian Cuddapah Basin, SE India. Precambrian Research 26, 57–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mitra S (2003) A unified kinematic model for the evolution of detachment folds. Journal of Structural Geology 25, 1659–1673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mukherjee MK (2001) Structural pattern and kinematic framework of deformation in the southern Nallamalai fold-fault belt, Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. Journal Asian Earth Sciences 19, 1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mukherjee S (2011) Mineral fish: their morphological classification, usefulness as shear sense indicators and genesis. International Journal of Earth Sciences 100, 1303–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mukherjee S (2012) Simple shear is not so simple! Kinematics and shear senses in Newtonian viscous simple shear zones. Geological Magazine 149, 819–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mukherjee S (2013) Deformation microstructures in rocks. Springer Geochemistry/Mineralogy. Berlin. pp 1–111. ISBN 978-3-642-25608-0Google Scholar
  47. Mukherjee S (2014a) Review of flanking structures in meso- and micro-scales. Geological Magazine 151, 957–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mukherjee S (2014b) Atlas of shear zone structures in meso-scale. Springer Geology, Cham, pp 1–124. ISBN 978-3-319-0088-6Google Scholar
  49. Mukherjee S (2015) Atlas of structural geology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN 978-0-12-420152-1Google Scholar
  50. Mukherjee S (2019) Introduction to “Tectonics and Structural Geology: Indian Context”. In: Mukherjee S (ed) Tectonics and structural geology: Indian context. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, pp 1–5. ISBN: 978-3-319-99340-9Google Scholar
  51. Mukherjee S, Talbot CJ, Koyi HA (2010) Viscosity estimates of salt in the Hormuz and Namakdan salt diapirs, Persian Gulf. Geological Magazine 147, 497–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mukherjee S, Punekar J, Mahadani T, Mukherjee R (2015) A review on intrafolial folds and their morphologies from the detachments of the western Indian Higher Himalaya. In: Mukherjee S, Mulchrone KF (eds) Ductile shear zones: from micro- to macro-scales. Wiley Blackwell pp 182–205Google Scholar
  53. Mukherjee S, Goswami S, Mukherjee A (in press) Structures and their tectonic implications form the southern part of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transaction A: Science.
  54. Mukhopadhyay D, Basak K (2009) The Eastern Ghats belt- a polycyclic granulite terrain. Journal Geological Society of India 73, 489–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nagaraja Rao BK, Rajurkar ST, Ramalingaswamy G, Ravindra Babu B (1987) Stratigraphy, structure and evolution of the Cuddapah Basin. In: Radhakrishna BP (ed) Purana basins of Peninsular India (Middle to Late Proterozoic). Geological Society of India, Memoir, 6, pp 33–86Google Scholar
  56. Nance RD, Murphy JB, Santosh M (2014) The supercontinent cycle: a retrospective essay. Gondwana Research 25, 4–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Natarajan V, Rajagopalan Nair S (1977) Post Kurnool thrust and structural features in the northeast part of the Palnad basin, Krishna district. A.P. Journal Geological Society of India 18, 111–116Google Scholar
  58. Nemčock M, Schamel S, Gayer R (2005) Thrust belts structural architecture, thermal regimes and petroleum systems. Cambridge University press, 541 pGoogle Scholar
  59. Power WL, Tullis TE (1989) The relationship between slickenside surfaces in fine-grained quartz and the seismic cycle. Journal of Structural Geology 11, 879–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rajurkar ST (1972) Geology of Vami Konda ranges and adjoining Palnad area, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh. Unpublished report, Geological Survey of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  61. Ramlinga Swamy G (1972) Geology of the Karempudi, Gummanampadu and adjoining areas in Cuddapah basin, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. Geological Survey of India, unpublished reportGoogle Scholar
  62. Ramsay JG (1967) Folding and fracturing of rocks. MacGraw Hill, New York, p 568pGoogle Scholar
  63. Ramsay JG, Casey M, Kligfield R (1983) Role of shear in development of the helvetic fold-thrust belt of Switzerland. Geology 11, 439–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rickers K, Mezger K, Raith MM (2001) Evolution of the continental crust in the proterozoic Eastern Ghats Belt, India and new constraints for Rodinia reconstruction: implications from Sm–Nd, Rb–Sr and Pb–Pb isotopes. Precambrain Research 112, 183–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rogers JJW, Santosh M (2002) Configuration of Columbia, a mesoproterozoic supercontinent. Gondwana Research 5, 5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Saha D (1994) Fold-fault structures of the Nallamalai range, Diguvametta-Nandi Ka Nama Pass, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, South India. Indian Journal of Geology 66, 203–213Google Scholar
  67. Saha D (2002) Multi-stage deformation in the Nallamalai Fold Belt, Cuddapah Basin, South India—implications for mesoproterozoic tectonism along Southeastern margin of India. Gondwana Research 5, 701–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Saha D (2004) Structural asymmetry and Plate tectonic set-up for a proterozoic fold and thrust belt: Nallamalai fold belt and adjoining terrane, South India. Geological Survey of India, Special Publication 84, 101–119Google Scholar
  69. Saha D (2011) Dismembered ophiolites in Paleoproterozoic nappe complexes of Kandra and Gurramkonda, South India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 42, 158–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Saha D, Chakraborty S (2003) Deformation pattern in the Kurnool and Nallamalai Groups in the Northeastern Part (Palnad Area) of the Cuddapah Basin, South India and its Implication on Rodinia/Gondwana. Tectonics, Gondwana Research 6, 573–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Saha D, Patranabis-Deb S (2014) Proterozoic evolution of Eastern Dharwar and Bastar cratons, India—an overview of the intracratonic basins, craton margins and mobile belts. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 91, 230–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Saha D, Tripathy V (2012) Palaeoproterozoic sedimentation in the Cuddapah Basin south India and regional tectonics—a review. In: Mazumder R, Saha D (eds) Paleoproterozoic of India, vol 365. Geological Society of London Special Publication, pp 159–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Saha D, Chakraborti S, Tripathy V (2010) Intracontinental thrusts and inclined transpression along Eastern margin of the East Dharwar craton, India. Journal Geological Society of India 75, 323–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Satyapal, Tripathy V (2014) Specialized thematic mapping in northern part of Nallamalai Fold Belt, Cuddapah basin, Guntur and Prakasam districts, Andhra Pradesh. Unpublished Geological Report, Geological Survey of India, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  75. Sesha Sai VV (2004) Petrographic and petrochemical charecterisation of Proterozoic granites in Nellore schist belt and northeastern fringes of Cuddapah basin. Records Geological Survey of India 137, 184–188Google Scholar
  76. Sesha Sai VV (2009) Sheeted dykes in Kandra ophiolite complex, Nellore schist belt, Andhra Pradesh—vestiges of oceanic crust. Journal of Geological Society of India 74, 509–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sesha Sai VV (2013) Proterozoic granite magmatism along the terrane boundary tectonic zone to the East of Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh—petrotectonic implications for Precambrian crustal growth in Nellore Schist Belt of Eastern Dharwar Craton. Journal of Geological Society of India 81, 167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sesha Sai VV, Khanna TC, Krishna Reddy NR (2016) Red beds in the Cuddapah Basin, eastern Dharwar craton, India: implications for the initiation of sedimentation during the proterozoic oxygenation event. Journal of Indian Geophysical Union 20, 342–350Google Scholar
  79. Sesha Sai VV, Tripathy V, Bhattacharjee S, Khanna TC (2017) Paleoproterozoic magmatism in the Cuddapah basin, India. Journal of Indian Geophysical Union 21, 516–525Google Scholar
  80. Tripathy V (2010) Brittle deformation in the Western Cuddapah Basin, South India and implications for intra-continental tectonics. Jadavpur University, pp 264 (Ph.D. thesis)Google Scholar
  81. Tripathy (2011) Brittle deformation in the western Cuddapah basin, South India and implications for intra-continental tectonics. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Jadvapur University, 264 p Google Scholar
  82. Tripathy V, Saha D (2010) Structure and low grade metamorphism of the east central part of the proterozoic Nallamalai fold belt, south India—thrust stacking and discontinuous metamorphic gradients along eastern margin of East Dharwar craton. Indian Journal of Geology 80(1–4), 173–188Google Scholar
  83. Tripathy V, Saha D (2013) Plate margin paleostress variations and intracontinental deformations in the evolution of Cuddapah basin through the Proterozoic. Precambrian Research 235, 107–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tripathy V, Saha D (2015) Inversion of calcite twin data, paleostress reconstruction and multiphase weak deformation in cratonic interior—evidence from the Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, India. Journal of Structural Geology 77, 62–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Upadhyay D, Raith MM, Mezger K, Hammerschmi K (2006) Mesoproterozoic rift-related alkaline magmatism at Elchuru, Prakasam Alkaline Province, SE India. Lithos 89, 447–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Venkatakrishnan R, Dotiwala FE (1987) The Cuddapah salient: a tectonic model for the Cuddapah basin, India, based on Landsat image interpretation. Tectonophysics 136, 237–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vijaya Kumar K, Ernst WG, Leelanandam C, Wooden JL, Grove MJ (2010) First Paleoproterozoic ophiolite from Gondwana: geochronologic—geochemical documentation of ancient oceanic crust from Kandra, SE India. Tectonophysics 487, 22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zhang S, Li Z-X, Evans DAD, Wu H, Li H, Dong J (2012) Pre-Rodinia supercontinent Nuna shaping up: a global synthesis with new paleomagnetic results from North China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 353–354, 145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vikash Tripathy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Satyapal
    • 2
  • S. K. Mitra
    • 3
  • V. V. Sesha Sai
    • 3
  1. 1.Geological Survey of India, Training InstituteHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Geological Survey of IndiaJaipurIndia
  3. 3.Geological Survey of IndiaHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations