Ionospheric Variability

  • Ljiljana R. CanderEmail author
Part of the Springer Geophysics book series (SPRINGERGEOPHYS)


The focus is on how ionospheric variability with height produces the different regions, which are the dominant features of the plasma medium under normal and extreme conditions over the European zone, during the last few Solar Cycles. Examples are given for months representing ionospheric summer, equinox, and winter conditions during low and high solar activity epochs, revealing significant solar and seasonal dependence, as well as local time dependence from one day to another during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Sudden TEC decreases during the most recent solar eclipses are reviewed.


Ionospheric Region Ionospheric Variability Ionosonde N(h) profile IGS VTEC Ionospheric Noise Solar Eclipse 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RAL Space, Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL)DidcotUK

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