Space Weather Causes and Effects

  • Ljiljana R. CanderEmail author
Part of the Springer Geophysics book series (SPRINGERGEOPHYS)


An overview of the interaction between the causes and effects of all kinds of space weather, outlining some clear ideas about ionospheric space weather as a specific subject area within the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (M-I-A) system. There is detailed discussion of the well known and frequently used solar-terrestrial ‘indices of activity’, as the parameters characterizing solar and geomagnetic activity. The overall aim is to explain why human society on planet Earth and outwards into space cannot work safely, function efficiently, and progress steadily without committed and comprehensive research initiatives in space weather.


Solar Cycle Solar Index Geomagnetic Index Ionospheric Index Radio Systems GNSS 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RAL Space, Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL)DidcotUK

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