Unfreezing Creativity: A Dynamic Micro-longitudinal Approach

  • Ronald A. BeghettoEmail author
  • Maciej Karwowski
Part of the Creativity Theory and Action in Education book series (CTAE, volume 4)


Creativity researchers have conceptualized and studied creativity in a variety of ways. One common approach is to treat creative thought and action as if they are static phenomena that can be assessed using fixed measures. In this chapter, we argue for a more dynamic, micro-longitudinal approach to studying creativity in classrooms. We open with a brief discussion of our operating assumptions about creative thought and action, which serve as the basis for our argument. We then discuss examples of how researchers might move from a more static to more dynamic approach. More specifically, we discuss how researchers can study creative phenomena (such as creative confidence beliefs) using more dynamic, micro-longitudinal designs. We also discuss various promising options for analyzing data collected from such designs, including latent growth curve modeling, network-based analysis, and qualitative interpretations of visual displays. We close with a brief discussion of implications for future research and practice.


  1. Agnoli, S., Zanon, M., Mastria, S., Avenanti, A., & Corazza, G. E. (2018). Enhancing creative cognition with a rapid right-parietal neurofeedback procedure. Neuropsychologia. Scholar
  2. Aljughaiman, A., & Mowrer-Reynolds, E. (2005). Teachers’ conceptions of creativity and creative students. Journal of Creative Behavior, 39, 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context: Update to ‘The Social Psychology of Creativity’. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38, 9–44. Scholar
  5. Bartko, J. J. (1976). On various intraclass correlation reliability coefficients. Psychological Bulletin, 83(5), 762–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beghetto, R. A. (2016a). Creative openings in the social interactions of teaching. Creativity: Theories-Research-Applications, 3, 261–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beghetto, R. A. (2016b). Creative learning: A fresh look. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 15, 6–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beghetto, R. A. (in press). From static to dynamic: Toward a socio-dynamic perspective on creativity in classrooms. In I. Lebuda & V. Glaveanu (Eds.), Palgrave handbook on social creativity. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  9. Beghetto, R. A. (2018). What if? Unleashing the power of complex challenges in teaching and learning. Alexandria: ASCD.Google Scholar
  10. Beghetto, R. A., & Karwowski, M. (2017). Toward untangling creative self-beliefs. In M. Karwowski & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), The creative self: Effects of self-efficacy, mindset and identity (pp. 4–24). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  11. Beghetto, R. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2007). Toward a broader conception of creativity: A case for mini-c creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 1, 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christakis, N. A., & Fowler, J. H. (2007). The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. New England Journal of Medicine, 357(4), 370–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christensen, A. P., Cotter, K. N., Silvia, P. J. (2018). Nomological network of openness to experience: A network analysis of four openness to experience inventories. Unpublished manuscript available at:
  14. Conner, T. S., & Silvia, P. J. (2015). Creative days: A daily diary study of emotion, personality, and everyday creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(4), 463–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Conner, T. S., DeYoung, C. G., & Silvia, P. J. (2018). Everyday creative activity as a path to flourishing. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13, 181–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corazza, G. E. (2016). Potential originality and effectiveness: The dynamic definition of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 28, 258–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costantini, G., Richetin, J., Preti, E., Casini, E., Epskamp, S., & Perugini, M. (2017). Stability and variability of personality networks. A tutorial on recent developments in network psychometrics. Personality and Individual Differences.Google Scholar
  18. D’Mello, S., Dieterle, E., & Duckworth, A. (2017). Advanced, analytic, automated (AAA) measurement of engagement during learning. Educational Psychologist, 52(2), 104–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. da Costa, C. G., Zhou, Q., & Ferreira, A. I. (2018). State and trait anger predicting creative process engagement: The role of emotion regulation. Journal of Creative Behavior.
  20. Dewey, J. (2007). The school and society. New York: Cosimo (Original work published 1899).Google Scholar
  21. Epskamp, S., Borsboom, D., & Fried, E. I. (2017). Estimating psychological networks and their accuracy: A tutorial paper. Behavior Research Methods, 50, 195–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Finke, R. A., Ward, T. M., & Smith, S. M. (1992). Creative cognition: Theory, research, and applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  23. Froebel, F. (1887/1906). The education of man. New York: D. Appleton & Company.Google Scholar
  24. Gajda, A., Beghetto, R. A., & Karwowski, M. (2017). Exploring creative learning in the classroom: A multi-method approach. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 24, 250–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Getzels, J. W. (1964). Creative thinking, problem solving, and instruction. In E. R. Hilgard (Ed.), Theories of learning and instruction (pp. 240–267). Chicago: University of Chicago Pres.Google Scholar
  26. Gralewski, J., & Karwowski, M. (2013). Polite girls and creative boys? Students’ gender moderates accuracy of teachers’ ratings of creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 47(4), 290–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5, 444–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guilford, J. P. (1967). Creativity and learning. In D. B. Lindsley & A. A. Lumsdaine (Eds.), Brain function, Vol. IV: Brain function and learning. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  29. Jauk, E., Benedek, M., & Neubauer, A. C. (2014). The road to creative achievement: A latent variable model of ability and personality predictors. European Journal of Personality, 28, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Karwowski, M. (2014). Creative mindsets: Measurement, correlates, consequences. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8, 62–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Karwowski, M., & Beghetto, R. A. (2018). Creative behavior as agentic action. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. Advanced online publication,
  32. Karwowski, M., Han, M., & Beghetto, R. A. (accepted). Toward dynamiting the measurement of creative confidence beliefs. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts.Google Scholar
  33. Karwowski, M., Lebuda, I., Wisniewska, E., & Gralewski, J. (2013). Big five personality traits as the predictors of creative self-efficacy and creative personal identity: Does gender matter? Journal of Creative Behavior, 47(3), 215–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Karwowski, M., Lebuda, I., Szumski, G., & Firkowska-Mankiewicz, A. (2017). From moment-to-moment to day-to-day: Experience sampling and diary investigations in adults’ everyday creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 11, 309–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaufman, J. C. (2016). Creativity 101 (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kennedy, M. (2005). Inside teaching: How classroom life undermines reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kéri, S. (2011). Solitary minds and social capital: Latent inhibition, general intellectual functions and social network size predict creative achievements. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5, 215–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McKay, A. S., Grygiel, P., & Karwowski, M. (2017). Connected to create: A social network analysis of friendship ties and creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 11, 284–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moreno, J. L. (1960). The sociometry reader. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  40. Navas, E. (2012). Remix theory: The aesthetics of sampling. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. O’Quin, K., & Besemer, S. (1989). The development, reliability, and validity of the revised: Creative product semantic scale. Creativity Research Journal, 2, 267–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Peirce, C. S. (1958). In A. W. Burks (Ed.), Collected papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Plucker, J. A., & Makel, M. C. (2010). Assessment of creativity. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 48–73). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Plucker, J., Beghetto, R. A., & Dow, G. (2004). Why isn’t creativity more important to educational psychologists? Potential, pitfalls, and future directions in creativity research. Educational Psychologist, 39, 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Preacher, K. J. (2008). Latent growth curve modeling. Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reiter-Palmon, R., Beghetto, R. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2014). Looking at creativity through a Business-Psychology-Education (BPE) Lens: The challenge and benefits of listening to each other. In E. Shiu (Ed.), Creativity research: An interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research handbook (pp. 9–30). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Renzulli, J. S., Smith, L. H., White, A. J., Callahan, C. M., & Hartman, R. K. (1976). Scales for rating the behavioral characteristics of superior students. Mansfield Center: Creative Learning Press.Google Scholar
  48. Rothenberg, A. (2014). Flight from wonder: An investigation of scientific creativity. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Runco, M. A., & Jaeger, G. J. (2012a). The standard definition of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 24, 92–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sawyer, R. K. (2012). Explaining creativity: The science of human innovation (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Schacter, J., Thum, Y. M., & Zifkin, D. (2006). How much does creative teaching enhance elementary school students’ achievement? The Journal of Creative Behavior, 40, 47–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Simonton, D. K. (2017). Defining creativity: Don’t we also need to define what is not creative? Journal of Creative Behavior, 51, 281–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smith, J. K., & Smith, L. F. (2017). The 1.5 criterion model of creativity: Where less is more, more or less. Journal of Creative Behavior, 51, 281–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Snijders, T., & Bosker, R. (1999). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and applied multilevel analysis. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Stein, M. I. (1953). Creativity and culture. The Journal of Psychology, 36, 311–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tanggaard, L., & Beghetto, R. A. (2015). Ideational pathways: Toward a new approach for studying the life of ideas. Creativity: Theories— Research—Applications, 2, 129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Torrance, E. P. (1966). The Torrance tests of creative thinking-norms-technical manual research edition-verbal tests, forms a and b-figural tests, Forms A and B. Princeton: Personnel Press.Google Scholar
  58. Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis: Methods and applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neag School of EducationUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.University of WroclawWroclawPoland

Personalised recommendations