Pain pp 425-427 | Cite as

Work History and Education in Evaluation of Chronic Pain

  • James E. EubanksEmail author
  • George C. Chang Chien


Chronic pain and its related health effects and costs is among the most important clinical issues for pain physicians. The multifactorial nature of pain, and especially chronic pain, requires a comprehensive understanding of the most influential factors involved in the experience of pain, lost productivity, and the health care costs associated with it. Among the important factors to consider are work history and education.


Pain Chronic pain Biopsychosocial Spine Musculoskeletal Work Job satisfaction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)PittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Ventura Count Medical CenterVenturaUSA

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