Pain pp 135-138 | Cite as

Use of Risk Factors to Guide Treatment

  • Aaron S. HessEmail author
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed


Diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment are among the most basic goals of medical practice. Data-driven assessments of risk and outcome are increasingly common, and are more accurate and reliable than clinical judgement. Diagnostic value is usually summarized by test sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and likelihood ratios. Individualized prognosis is most commonly made with clinical risk calculators. Treatment based on individual risk factors rather than disease alone should lead to greater efficacy and efficiency, and can be assessed with impact studies.


Clinical decision rule Likelihood ratio Risk calculator 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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