Pain pp 131-133 | Cite as

Case Control Studies

  • Aaron S. HessEmail author
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed


Case-control studies are a type of epidemiological study in which subjects are selected based on whether they have the outcome of interest, and then are examined for the presence of a prior exposure. By conditioning on outcome rather than exposure, case-control studies are very well suited to studies of rare outcomes, but are prone to selection bias in the identification of controls. Relative risks cannot be calculated from case-control studies, only odds ratios.


Case-control Observational studies Retrospective studies 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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