Pain pp 91-93 | Cite as

Outcome Measures in Clinical Studies

  • Aaron S. HessEmail author
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed


Accurate outcomes measurement and comparison is critical for clinical research. Outcomes data is usually described by the type and number of possible values it can have as continuous, ordinal, or categorical. When reporting and analyzing outcomes measures, it is important to accurately define the time that each individual in the population is at risk.


Outcomes Risk Odds Incidence Prevalence 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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