Pain pp 1047-1049 | Cite as

Manipulation, Mobilization, Massage and Traction in Pain Management

  • James E. EubanksEmail author
  • George C. Chang Chien
  • James W. Atchison


Of the greater than 200 clinical therapies available to address back pain, none is more studied than spinal manipulation. The past decade has seen an explosion in the mainstream integration of physical modalities such as spinal manipulation and mobilization, massage and spinal traction for the management of common musculoskeletal pain. The growing role of physical modalities in the treatment of pain is at least partly related to the relative ineffectiveness and/or risks of traditional treatments such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, and muscle relaxants. Concerns surrounding medical therapy are especially true for opioids, which may be no more effective in musculoskeletal pain than safer classes of drugs. The benefit of including physical modalities centers on their favorable side effect profile and high rates of patient satisfaction.


Pain Chronic pain Spine Musculoskeletal Manipulation Mobilization Massage Traction Osteopathic Chiropractic 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • James E. Eubanks
    • 1
    Email author
  • George C. Chang Chien
    • 2
  • James W. Atchison
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)PittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Ventura County Medical CenterVenturaUSA
  3. 3.Shirley Ryan Ability Lab, Pain Management CenterChicagoUSA

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