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Components of Clinical Trials

  • Aaron S. HessEmail author
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed


A clinical trial is an experiment applied to living participants in order to test some means of treatment, diagnosis or prevention. A clinical trial applies an experimental intervention to one or more groups of participants and compares it to a control group (a standard intervention, placebo or nothing). Randomization of assignment, blinding of investigators and participants are critical techniques to reduce bias. Clinical trials are the clearest means of establishing causality in disease and patient care, including both desired outcomes and adverse effects.


Clinical trials Randomization Experimental studies Prospective studies 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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