Pain pp 907-910 | Cite as

Phantom Limb Pain

  • Neil Hall
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed
  • Sam EldabeEmail author


Phantom limb pain is a complex condition that induces changes within the central nervous system with peripheral and psychological influences acting to mediate symptoms. Reversal of these central changes is a key consideration to effective treatment.


Phantom limb pain Phantom limb sensation Stump pain 


  1. 1.
    Grüsser S, Winter C, Mühlnickel W, Denke C, Karl A, Villringer K, Flor H. The relationship of perceptual phenomena and cortical reorganization in upper extremity amputees. Neuroscience. 2001;102(2):263–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nikolajsen L, Hansen C, Nielsen J, Keller J, Arendt-Nielsen L, Jensen T. The effect of ketamine on phantom pain: a central neuropathic disorder maintained by peripheral input. Pain. 1996;67(1):69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huse E, Larbig W, Flor H, Birbaumer N. The effect of opioids on phantom limb pain and cortical reorganization. Pain. 2001;90(1):47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    MacIver K, Lloyd D, Kelly S, Roberts N, Nurmikko T. Phantom limb pain, cortical reorganization and the therapeutic effect of mental imagery. Brain. 2008;131(8):2181–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eldabe S, Burger K, Moser H, Klase D, Schu S, Wahlstedt A, Vanderick B, Francois E, Kramer J, Subbaroyan J. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation in the treatment of phantom limb pain (PLP). Neuromodulation. 2015;18(7):610–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vaso A, Adahan HM, Gjika A, Zahaj S, Zhurda T, Vyshka G, Devor M. Peripheral nervous system origin of phantom limb pain. Pain. 2014 Jul;155(7):1384–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pain and AnesthesiaThe James Cook University HospitalMiddlesbroughUK
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations