Advertisement

Charlie Hebdo and the Prophet Muhammad: A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis of Peace and Violence in a Satirical Cartoon

  • Laura KilbyEmail author
  • Henry Lennon
Chapter
Part of the Peace Psychology Book Series book series (PPBS)

Abstract

In this chapter, we examine how ideologies of peace and violence can be (re)produced and communicated via multiple semiotic forms that include, but are not restricted to, language. We grapple with the complexity and importance of the situated-ness of peace and violence, and consider what does peace, indeed what can peace, look like in a social context where meaning and expression are both multiple and contested. To this end, we undertake a case study analysis, exploring how a multimodal text might be variously interpreted as an explicit display of peace and forgiveness, and yet simultaneously as an oppressive act which knowingly causes offence. In addressing these issues, we relate to Galtung’s (1996, p. 196) typology of violence, and we consider the issue of cultural violence, which he defines as ‘those aspects of culture, the symbolic sphere of our existence […] that can be used to legitimize direct or structural violence’.

Keywords

Critical discourse analysis Cultural violence Discursive psychology Multimodal discourse analysis Peace psychology Political cartoons 

References

  1. Aboudi, S. (2015, January 14). Al Qaeda claims French attack, derides Paris rally. Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com
  2. Abu Bakar, M. F. (n.d.). Colours of Islam. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu
  3. Brooks, D. (2015, January 8). I am not Charlie Hebdo. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com.
  4. Carter, D. (2011). Multimodal critical discourse analysis of systematically distorted communication in intercountry adoption industry websites (PhD Thesis, Washington State University).Google Scholar
  5. Catalano, T., & Waugh, L. (2013). The ideologies behind newspaper crime reports of Latinos and Wall Street/CEOs: A critical analysis of metonymy in text and image. Critical Discourse Studies, 10, 406–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charlie Hebdo. (2015, January 14). How I created Charlie Hebdo survivor's cover: cartoonist Luz’s statement in full. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk
  7. Devichand, M. (2016, January 3). How the world was changed by the slogan ‘Je Suis Charlie’. BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk
  8. Djonov, E., & Zhao, S. (Eds.). (2014). Critical multimodal studies of popular discourse. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Edwards, D. (1997). Discourse and cognition. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Edwards, D., & Potter, J. (1992). Discursive psychology. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. El Refaie, E. (2009). Metaphor in political cartoons: Exploring audience responses. In C. Forceville & E. Urios-Aparisi (Eds.), Multimodal metaphor (pp. 75–95). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  12. Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  13. Fairclough, N. (2001). Critical discourse analysis as a method in social scientific research. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 121–138). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Fairclough, N., & Wodak, R. (1997). Critical discourse analysis. In T. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction (Vol. 2, pp. 258–284). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Galtung, J. (1996). Peace by peaceful means. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Gamson, W., & Stuart, D. (1992). Media discourse as a symbolic contest: The bomb in political cartoons. Sociological Forum, 7, 55–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Iedema, R. (2003). Multimodality, resemiotization: Extending the analysis of discourse as multi-semiotic practice. Visual Communication, 2, 29–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jewitt, C. (1997). Images of men. Sociological Research Online, 2(2), 1. Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/2/2/6.htmlCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jewitt, C. (1999). A social semiotic analysis of male heterosexuality in sexual health resources: The case of images. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory and Practice, 1, 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jewitt, C., & Oyama, R. (2001). Visual meaning: A social semiotic approach. In T. van Leeuwen & C. Jewitt (Eds.), Handbook of visual analysis (pp. 134–156). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Kress, G., & van Leeuwen, T. (1996). Reading images: The grammar of visual design. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Kress, G., & van Leeuwen, T. (2001). Multimodal discourse: The modes and media of contemporary communication. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  23. Kress, G., & van Leeuwen, T. (2006). Reading images: The grammar of visual design (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leudar, I., Marsland, V., & Nekvapil, J. (2004). On membership categorisation: ‘Us’, ‘them’ and ‘doing violence’ in political discourse. Discourse & Society, 15, 243–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Levine, P., & Scollon, R. (Eds.). (2004). Discourse & technology: Multimodal discourse analysis. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Machin, D. (2013). What is multimodal critical discourse studies? Critical Discourse Studies, 10, 347–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Machin, D. (2016). The need for a social and affordance-driven multimodal critical discourse studies. Discourse & Society, 27, 322–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Machin, D., & Mayr, A. (2012). How to do critical discourse analysis: A multimodal introduction. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Mazid, B. (2008). Cowboy and misanthrope: A critical (discourse) analysis of Bush and bin Laden cartoons. Discourse & Communication, 2, 433–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meyer, M. (2001). Between theory, method, and politics: Positioning of the approaches to CDA. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 14–31). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Moloney, G., Holtz, P., & Wagner, W. (2013). Editorial political cartoons in Australia: Social representations and the visual depiction of essentialism. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 47, 294–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Müller, G., Özcan, E., & Seizov, O. (2009). Dangerous depictions: A visual case study of contemporary cartoon controversies. Popular Communication, 7, 28–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Richardson, J., & Wodak, R. (2009). The impact of visual racism: Visual arguments in political leaflets of Austrian and British Far-right Parties. Controversia, 6, 45–77.Google Scholar
  34. Richardson, J. E. (2016). Recontextualisation and fascist music. In L. C. S. Way & S. McKerrell (Eds.), Music as multimodal discourse: Semiotics, power and protest (pp. 71–94). London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  35. Schegloff, E. A. (1997). Whose text? Whose context? Discourse & Society, 8, 165–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Taibi, C. (2015, January 7). These are the Charlie Hebdo cartoons that terrorists thought were worth killing over. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com
  37. te Molder, H., & Potter, J. (2005). Conversation and cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. van Dijk, T. A. (2001). Multidisciplinary CDA: A plea for diversity. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 95–120). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  39. van Dijk, T. A. (2015). Critical discourse studies: A sociocognitive approach. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (3rd ed., pp. 63–85). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. van Leeuwen, T. (1999). Speech, music, sound. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. van Leeuwen, T. (2004). Ten reasons why linguists should pay attention to visual communication. In P. LeVine & R. Scollon (Eds.), Discourse and technology: Multimodal discourse analysis (pp. 7–20). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  42. van Leeuwen, T. (2005). Introducing social semiotics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. van Leeuwen, T., & Jewitt, C. (Eds.). (2001). Handbook of visual analysis. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (Eds.). (2015). Methods for critical discourse analysis (3rd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  45. Wooffitt, R. (2005). Conversation analysis and discourse analysis: A comparative and critical introduction. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations