Thyroid Dysfunction and Infertility
Female fertility is a cumulative process of ovarian function, oocyte development, endometrial receptivity, and male factors. This chapter examines the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and female reproductive potential. Hypothyroidism is associated with changes in menstrual patterns, including decreased menstrual cycle frequency and increased volume of menses. Thyroid hormone, thyroid hormone transporters, and nuclear thyroid hormone receptors have been found in ovarian follicles and in oocytes. Thyroid hormone receptors are also found at the surface of the endometrium and are thought to be involved in the interaction between the endometrium and the blastocyst at the time of implantation. There continues to be debate on whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with infertility. Evidence suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid antibodies, in addition to overt hypothyroidism, may be associated with negative outcomes among women undergoing treatment with assisted reproductive technology.
KeywordsThyroid Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism Ovary Endometrium Fertility Endometrium Subclinical hypothyroidism
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