Essentials of Debriefing and Feedback

  • Emily K. MarkoEmail author
Part of the Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation book series (CHS)


Debriefing and feedback in healthcare simulation are challenging but essential components of a program. This phase of simulation occurs when the skilled facilitator brings the participants together to review and critique their actions. It is the phase that solidifies the learning process through educational theory based on experiential learning and reflection on action. Several methodologies of debriefing have evolved over decades of experience in medical simulation. No one method has been proven superior over another. The choice of method is determined by the objectives, type of simulation, level of the learner, debriefing environment, equipment, and expertise of the facilitator. A practical approach to simulation debriefing includes addressing the learning climate, diffusion of emotions, defining the debrief objectives, a clinical debrief, a teamwork debrief, and a summary and closure section. Developing expert skills in facilitating a simulation debrief takes practice and a 360 degree feedback in debriefing techniques.


Debrief Reflection Experiential learning Transformation Feedback Deliberate practice Teamwork 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyInova Health SystemFalls ChurchUSA

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