Overcoming Past Trauma

  • Timothy James Bowyer


This chapter focuses on how survivors adapt to living under conditions that prevent them from confronting and somehow finding an appropriate outlet for their experiences. By minimizing their own psychological discomfort and responsibility past painful experiences have become sufficiently detached as to be treated as a part of the normal process of daily living. In this way the memory of extreme events is split off and silenced by indistinct understandings and discourse. For the survivors this has been critical to their own survival. However, this disavowal of the past does not also mean that they remain locked into an on-going and exclusive identification with the present. Though this process enables survivors to adapt to and carry out the tasks needed for daily survival it also produces a susceptibility to anxiety, rage and depression, a sense of helplessness, an inability to concentrate, fear and a retreat into dependency.


Conflicts Obligations Identity Environment Fatalism Repression Helplessness Dependency Memory Psychic splitting 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy James Bowyer
    • 1
  1. 1.SwanseaUK

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