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The Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry of the Radioisotopes of Copper

  • Xiaoxi Ling
  • Cathy S. Cutler
  • Carolyn J. AndersonEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

There are five radioisotopes of copper that are suitable for use in nuclear imaging or targeted radionuclide therapy: copper-67, copper-64, copper-62, copper-61, and copper-60. The diverse nuclear properties of these radionuclides include half-lives ranging from 10 min to 62 h and decay pathways via positron (β+) and beta-minus (β) emission. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as well as radionuclide therapy can be performed using copper-67, while the quartet of other radioisotopes decays via positron emission for positron emission tomography (PET). Two current foci of research into the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of copper are the creation of new coordination architectures for the radiometal and the development of relatively simple radiolabeling techniques that will lead to agents that remain stable in vivo. This chapter will discuss the production of the various radionuclides, the development of chelators for copper(II), and the applications of copper radiopharmaceuticals in both imaging and therapy.

Keywords

Copper radionuclides (production) Copper radiopharmaceuticals Macrocyclic chelators Copper bis(thiosemicarbazones) Copper-64 PET imaging Hypoxia imaging 

Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

AmBaSar

4-((8-Amino-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]icosan-1-yl)amino)benzoic acid

ATSM

Diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone)

Amyloid-β

BLIP

Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

BNL

Brookhaven National Laboratory

BTS

Bis(thiosemicarbazone)

c(RGDfD)

cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Phe-Asp)

c(RGDyK)

cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys)

CB-TE1A1P

1,4,8,11-Tetraazabicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane-4-acetic acid-11-methylphosphonic acid

CB-TE2A

1,4,8,11-Tetraazabicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane-4,11-diacetic acid

CT

Computed tomography

DiamSar

1,8-Diamino-3,6,10,13,16,19- hexaazabicyclo[6,6,6]-eicosane

DOTA

1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4-7,10-tetraacetic acid

E0

Standard reduction potentials

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

ETS

Ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazone)

FAZA

1-(5-Fluoro-5-deoxy-α-D- arabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole

FMISO

Fluoromisonidazole

FRIB

Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

GTS

Glyoxal-bis(thiosemicarbazone)

GTSM

Glyoxal-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone)

h

Hours

keV

Kilo-electron volts (103)

LANL

Los Alamos National Lab

mAb

Monoclonal antibody

MeCOSar

5-(8-methyl-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaaza-bicyclo[6.6.6]icosan-1-ylamino)-5-oxopentanoic acid

MeV

Mega-electron volts (106)

MicroPET

Miniaturized positron emission tomography

min

Minutes

MSU

Michigan State University

NODAGA

1-(1,3-Carboxypropyl)-4,7- dicarboxymethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane

NOTA

1,4,7-Tricarboxymethyl-1,4,7- triazacyclononane

NSCL

National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

PCBA

1-[(1,4,7,10,13-Pentaazacyclopentaadec-1-yl)methyl]benzoic acid

PCB-TE2A

1,4,8,11-Tetraazabicyclo[6.6.3]heptadecane-4,11-diacetic acid

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PET

Positron emission tomography

pH

Potential of hydrogen

PTSM

Pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4- methylthiosemicarbazone)

Sar/Sarcophagine

3,6,10,13,16,19-Hexaazabicyclo(6,6,6)eicosane

SarAr

N1-(4-aminophenyl)-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]icosane-1,8-diamine

SOD1

Superoxide dismutase 1

SPECT

Single-photon emission computed tomography

SSR

Somatostatin receptor

TATE

Octreotate

TE2A(1,4-)

1,4,8,11-Tetraazacyclotetradecane-1,4-biacetic acid

TE2A(1,8-)

1,4,8,11-Tetraazacyclotetradecane-1,8-biacetic acid

TETA

1,4,8,11-Tetraazacyclotetradecane-1,4,8,11-tetraacetic acid

Y3-TATE

Tyrosine-3-octreotate

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoxi Ling
    • 1
  • Cathy S. Cutler
    • 2
  • Carolyn J. Anderson
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Medical Isotope Research & Production (MIRP) Program, Collider Accelerator DepartmentBrookhaven National LaboratoryUptonUSA

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