Analysing AWN-Specifications Using mCRL2 (Extended Abstract)

  • Rob van Glabbeek
  • Peter Höfner
  • Djurre van der Wal
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11023)


We develop and implement a translation from the process Algebra for Wireless Networks (AWN) into the milli Common Representation Language (mCRL2). As a consequence of the translation, the sophisticated toolset of mCRL2 is now available for AWN-specifications. We show that the translation respects strong bisimilarity; hence all safety properties can be automatically checked using the toolset. To show usability of our translation we report on a case study.


  1. 1.
    Behrmann, G., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Wang Yi: Developing Uppaal over 15 years. Softw. - Pract. Exp. 41(2), 133–142 (2011).
  2. 2.
    Behrmann, G., David, A., Larsen, K.G.: A tutorial on Uppaal. In: Bernardo, M., Corradini, F. (eds.) SFM-RT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3185, pp. 200–236. Springer, Heidelberg (2004). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bergstra, J.A., Klop, J.W.: Algebra of communicating processes. In: de Bakker, Hazewinkel, J.W., Lenstra, J.K. (eds.) Mathematics and Computer Science, CWI Monograph 1, pp. 89–138. North-Holland (1986)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bettini, L.: Implementing Domain-Specific Languages with Xtext and Xtend, 2nd edn. Packt Publishing, Birmingham (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bolognesi, T., Brinksma, E.: Introduction to the ISO specification language LOTOS. Comput. Netw. 14, 25–59 (1987). Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bourke, T., van Glabbeek, R.J., Höfner, P.: Mechanizing a process algebra for network protocols. J. Autom. Reason. 56(3), 309–341 (2016). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bres, E., van Glabbeek, R., Höfner, P.: A timed process algebra for wireless networks with an application in routing. In: Thiemann, P. (ed.) ESOP 2016. LNCS, vol. 9632, pp. 95–122. Springer, Heidelberg (2016). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cranen, S., et al.: An overview of the mCRL2 toolset and its recent advances. In: Piterman, N., Smolka, S.A. (eds.) TACAS 2013. LNCS, vol. 7795, pp. 199–213. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Emerson, E.A., Clarke, E.M.: Using branching time temporal logic to synthesize synchronization skeletons. Sci. Comput. Program. 2(3), 241–266 (1982). Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fehnker, A., van Glabbeek, R., Höfner, P., McIver, A., Portmann, M., Tan, W.L.: Automated analysis of AODV using UPPAAL. In: Flanagan, C., König, B. (eds.) TACAS 2012. LNCS, vol. 7214, pp. 173–187. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fehnker, A., van Glabbeek, R., Höfner, P., McIver, A., Portmann, M., Tan, W.L.: A process algebra for wireless mesh networks. In: Seidl, H. (ed.) ESOP 2012. LNCS, vol. 7211, pp. 295–315. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fehnker, A., van Glabbeek, R.J., Höfner, P., McIver, A.K., Portmann, M., Tan, W.L.: A process algebra for wireless mesh networks used for modelling, verifying and analysing AODV (2013).
  13. 13.
    Glabbeek, R.J.: The coarsest precongruences respecting safety and liveness properties. In: Calude, C.S., Sassone, V. (eds.) TCS 2010. IAICT, vol. 323, pp. 32–52. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). Scholar
  14. 14.
    van Glabbeek, R.J.: Ensuring liveness properties of distributed systems (a research agenda). Position paper (2016).
  15. 15.
    van Glabbeek, R.J., Höfner, P.: Split, send, reassemble: a formal specification of a CAN bus protocol stack. In: Hermanns, H., Höfner, P. (eds.) Models for formal analysis of real systems (MARS 2017), EPTCS, vol. 244, pp. 14–52. Open Publishing Association (2017).
  16. 16.
    van Glabbeek, R.J., Höfner, P., Portmann, M., Tan, W.L.: Modelling and verifying the AODV routing protocol. Distrib. Comput. 29(4), 279–315 (2016). Scholar
  17. 17.
    van Glabbeek, R.J., Höfner, P., van der Wal, D.: Analysing AWN-specifications using mCRL2. Technical report, Data61, CSIRO (2018, to appear)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Groote, J.F., Mousavi, M.R.: Modeling and Analysis of Communicating Systems. MIT Press, Cambridge (2014)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hennessy, M., Milner, R.: Algebraic laws for nondeterminism and concurrency. J. ACM 32(1), 137–161 (1985). Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hoare, C.A.R.: Communicating Sequential Processes. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (1985)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hwong, Y.-L., Keiren, J.A., Kusters, V.J.J., Leemans, S.J.J., Willemse, T.A.C.: Formalising and analysing the control software of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Sci. Comput. Program. 78(12), 2435–2452 (2013). Scholar
  22. 22.
    IEEE: IEEE Standard for Information Technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks-Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications Amendment 10: Mesh Networking (2011).
  23. 23.
    Kant, G., Laarman, A., Meijer, J., van de Pol, J., Blom, S., van Dijk, T.: LTSmin: high-performance language-independent model checking. In: Baier, C., Tinelli, C. (eds.) TACAS 2015. LNCS, vol. 9035, pp. 692–707. Springer, Heidelberg (2015). Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kent, S.: Model driven engineering. In: Butler, M., Petre, L., Sere, K. (eds.) IFM 2002. LNCS, vol. 2335, pp. 286–298. Springer, Heidelberg (2002). Scholar
  25. 25.
    Luttik, S.P.: Description and formal specification of the link layer of P1394. In: Lovrek, I. (ed.) 2nd International Workshop on Applied Formal Methods in System Design, pp. 43–56 (1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Milner, R.: Communication and Concurrency. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (1989)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nolte, S.: QVT - Operational Mappings: Modellierung mit der Query Views Transformation. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). Scholar
  28. 28.
    Object Management Group: Meta Object Facility (MOF) 2.0 Query/View/ Transformation Specification (2011).
  29. 29.
    Park, D.: Concurrency and automata on infinite sequences. In: Deussen, P. (ed.) GI-TCS 1981. LNCS, vol. 104, pp. 167–183. Springer, Heidelberg (1981). Scholar
  30. 30.
    Perkins, C.E., Belding-Royer, E.M., Das, S.: Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing. RFC 3561 (Experimental), Network Working Group (2003).
  31. 31.
    Plotkin, G.D.: A structural approach to operational semantics. J. Log. Algebr. Program. 60–61, 17–139 (2004). Originally appeared in 1981.
  32. 32.
    Pratt, V.R.: A Decidable mu-Calculus. In: Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS 1981), pp. 421–427. IEEE Computer Society (1981).
  33. 33.
    Schmidt, D.C.: Model-driven engineering. Computer 39(2), 25–31 (2006). Scholar
  34. 34.
    Soley, R., The OMG Staff Strategy Group: Model Driven Architecture (2000).
  35. 35.
    Steinberg, D., Budinsky, F., Paternostro, M., Merks, E.: EMF: Eclipse Modeling Framework 2.0, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley, Boston (2009)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    van der Wal, D.: Modeling AWN networks with an mCRL2 back end. Master’s thesis, University of Twente (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rob van Glabbeek
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Höfner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Djurre van der Wal
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Data61, CSIROSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Formal Methods and ToolsUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations