Towards a Model of Early Entrepreneurial Education: Appreciation, Facilitation and Evaluation

  • Elisabeth UnterfraunerEmail author
  • Christian Voigt
  • Sandra Schön
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 804)


This paper introduces the Maker movement as a bottom-up movement, placing digital fabrication technologies on people’s desks to produce “almost anything”. It explores further the pedagogical value of making in education in general and in early entrepreneurial education in particular. Making as a pedagogical approach is analysed referencing established pedagogical concepts as well as a qualitative study including makers and managers of maker spaces. Although maker education has so far only rarely been introduced in formal education, there are many initiatives that bring making and formal education together. According to maker experts, formal education would benefit from making because it is well suited to develop practical skills such as prototyping, supporting creativity and promoting critical reflection. In conclusion we describe a model of introducing making in early entrepreneurial education and conclude with a proposed assessment framework for measuring its impact, which will be tested in an on-going project funded by the European Commission.


Making Early entrepreneurial education Maker pedagogy 



DOIT has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 770063.


  1. 1.
    Millard, J., Unterfrauner, E., Voigt, C., Katsikis, O.K., Sorivelle, M.N.: The maker movement in Europe: empirical and practitioner insights. In: Presented at the 4TH ICT for Sustainability Conference (ICT4S), Toronto (accepted)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gershenfeld, N.: How to make almost anything: the digital fabrication revolution. Foreign Aff. 91(6), 43–57 (2012). Council on Foreign AffairsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Unterfrauner, E., Schrammel, M., Hofer, M., Fabian, C.M., Voigt, C., Deljanin, S.R., Sorivelle, M.N., Devoldere, B., Haga, H.: Final case study report focusing on cross-case analysis (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Invent To Learn – Making, Tinkering, and Engineering in the Classroom.
  5. 5.
    Unterfrauner, E., Voigt, C.: Makers’ ambitions to do socially valuable things. In: Di Lucchio, L., Imbesi, L., Atkinson, P. (eds.) The Design Journal, vol. 20(Sup1), pp. 3317–3325. Taylor & Francis Online (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Montessori, M.: The Montessori Method. Transaction Publishers, Chicago (2013)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ackermann, E.: Piaget’s constructivism, Papert’s constructionism: what’s the difference. Future Learn. Group Publ. 5, 438 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    van Hout-Wolters, B., Simons, R.-J., Volet, S.: Active learning: self-directed learning and independent work. In: New Learning. pp. 21–36. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bell, S.: Project-based learning for the 21st century: skills for the future. Clear. House 83, 39–43 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kaltman, G.S.: Hands-on Learning. Corwin, Thousand Oaks (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bruffee, K.A.: Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge, 2nd edn. John Hopkins Press, Baltimore (1999)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Papert, S.: Situating constructionism. In: Harel, I., Papert, S. (eds.) Constructionism. Ablex Publishing, Norwood (1991)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Papert, S.: The Children’s Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. Basic Books, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schön, S., Boy, H., Brombach, G., Ebner, M., Kleeberger, J., Narr, K., Rösch, E., Schreiber, B., Zorn, I.: Einführung zu Making-Aktivitäten mit Kindern und Jugendlichen. Book on Demand, Norderstedt (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Becker, S.A., Cummins, M., Davis, A., Freeman, A., Hall, C.G., Ananthanarayanan, V.: NMC Horizon Report: 2017 Higher, Education edn. The New Media Consortium, Austin (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Voigt, C., Montero, C.S., Menichinelli, M.: An empirically informed taxonomy for the Maker Movement. In: International Conference on Internet Science, pp. 189–204. Springer, Florence (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Craddock, I.L.: Makers on the move: a mobile makerspace at a comprehensive public high school. Libr. Hi Tech. 33, 497–504 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eurydice: Entrepreneurship Education at School in Europe: Eurydice Report. Publications Office of the European Union (2016)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lackéus, M.: Entrepreneurship in education: What, why, when, how. Backgr. Pap. (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Urban, K.K., Jellen, H.G.: Test zum Schöpferischen Denken-Zeichnerisch (TSD-Z). Swets (1995)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Battle, J.: Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories, Third Edition (CFSEI-3). Pro.Ed, Austin (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisabeth Unterfrauner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christian Voigt
    • 1
  • Sandra Schön
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Social InnovationViennaAustria
  2. 2.Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft m.b.H.SalzburgAustria

Personalised recommendations