Cave Ecology pp 451-478 | Cite as

Conservation of Cave Fauna, with an Emphasis on Europe and the Americas

  • Matthew L. NiemillerEmail author
  • Steven J. Taylor
  • Maria Elina Bichuette
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 235)


We review significant conservation and management legislation, policies, and other actions that have been implemented or proposed to protect and conserve subterranean biodiversity in Europe, North America, Central America, and South America. In particular, we focus on legislation at the national and international levels that has been passed or proposed to directly or indirectly protect subterranean biodiversity. Other conservation initiatives, such as the IUCN Red List and NatureServe conservation assessment, also have conservation implications for to subterranean biodiversity. However, there remain several limitations of legislation, policies, and other initiatives to protect and conserve subterranean biodiversity on these continents. Several suggestions are set forth to overcome these shortcomings and better facilitate subterranean biodiversity conservation in Europe, North America, Central America, and South America.



We thank JE Gallão for sharing unpublished data for Brazilian cave fauna, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and Fundação o Boticário de Proteção à Natureza (FBPN) for grants to MEB.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew L. Niemiller
    • 1
    Email author
  • Steven J. Taylor
    • 2
  • Maria Elina Bichuette
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesThe University of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Office of General Studies, Colorado CollegeColorado SpringsUSA
  3. 3.Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia EvolutivaUniversidade Federal de São CarlosSão CarlosBrazil

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