Online Signature-Based Biometric Recognition

  • Sudeep Tanwar
  • Mohammad S. Obaidat
  • Sudhanshu Tyagi
  • Neeraj Kumar


This chapter covers the online signature-based biometric recognition system, which includes fingerprint scanning, facial geometry, footprint scanning, retina and iris patterns, DNA, and heartbeat scans. It covers the background knowledge of signature verification system along with its classification. A systematic comparison between online and offline signature verification system is also included. Basics of biometric recognition in terms of security, exploring definitions of the various parameters that can be used in the security perspective, are also covered (Obaidat and Boudriga, Security of e-Systems and Computer Networks. Cambridge University Press, 2007; Obaidat and Sadoun, IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybernetics Part B, 27(2):261–269, 1997). An in-depth discussion about the online signature-based authentication methods is also presented. Finally, some case studies have been discussed to demonstrate the concept.


  1. 1.
    M.S. Obaidat, N. Boudriga, Security of e-Systems and Computer Networks (Cambridge University Press, 2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.S. Obaidat, B. Sadoun, Verification of computer users using keystroke dynamics. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybernetics, Part B 27(2), 261–269 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.V. Kanawade, S.S. Katariya, Signature verification & recognition – case study. Int. J. Electron. Commun. Instrumentation Eng. Res. Dev. (IJECIERD) 3(1), 77–86 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Zhang, M. Fu, H. Yan, Handwritten signature verification based on neural ‘gas’ based vector quantization. in IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Net-works, 1998, pp. 1862–1864Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sansone, Vento, Signature verification: Increasing performance by a multi-stage system. Pattern Anal. Applic. 3, 169–181 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E.J.R. Justino, F. Bortolozzi, R. Sabourin, Off-line signature verification using HMM for random, simple and skilled forgeries. in ICDAR 2001, International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, vol. 1, 2001, pp. 105–110Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.F. Vélez, Á. Sánchez, A.B. Moreno, Robust off-line signature verification using compression networks and positional cuttings. in Proceedings of 2003 I.E. Workshop on Neural Networks for Signal Processing, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 627–636Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Fallah, M. Jamaati, A. Soleamani, A new online signature verification system based on combining Mellin transform, MFCC and neural network. DSP 21(2), 404–416 (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Findlater, J.O. Wobbrock, D. Wigdor, Typing on flat glass: examining ten-finger expert typing patterns on touch surfaces. in Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference on Human factors in computing systems, CHI ’11, 2011, pp. 2453–2462Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Sae-Bae et al., Biometric-rich gestures: a novel approach to authentication on multi-touch devices. in CHI ’12, 2012, pp. 977–986Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Prabhakar, S. Pankanti, A.K. Jain, Biometric recognition: Security and privacy concerns. IEEE Secur. Priv. Mag. 1, 33–42 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Kulkarni, N. Takawale, A comparative study of biometric techniques. Int. J. Innovative Res. Comput. Commun. Eng. 4(1), 879–883 (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Z. Riha, V. Matyas, Biometric authentication system. FIMU, 4–44 (2000)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.D. DiptiVerma, Static signature recognition system for user authentication based two level cog, Hough transform and neural network. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Emerg. Technol. 6(3), 335–343 (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Agam, S. Suresh, Warping based offline signature recognition. Inf. Forensics and Secur. 2(3), 430–437 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    F.Z. Marcos, signature recognition state–of–the–art. IEEE A&E Syst. Mag., 28–32 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Wen, B. Fang, and T. Jhang, Offline signature verification: a new rotation invariant approach, pp. 3583–3586Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    B. Jayasekara, A. Jayasiri, L. Udawatta, An evolving signature recognition system. in First International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, ICIIS 2006, 2006, pp. 529–534Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Zheng, G. Zhu, On-Lin handwriting signature recognition based on wavelet energy feature matching. in Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, 2006, pp. 9885–9888Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Survey on Dynamic Signature Recognition: A sign of the times – Part 2, Biometric Technology Today, 2009, pp. 1–2Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Fierrez, HMM-based on-line signature verification: Feature extraction and signature modeling. Pattern Recogn. Lett. 28, 2325–2334 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    T.Q. Ton, T. Nhu, HMM based online signature verification. Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Eng. Technol. (IJARCET) 4(4), 1448–1451 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    V.M. Patel, N.K. Ratha, R. Chellappa, Cancelable biometrics: A review. IEEE Signal Proc. Mag. 2015Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    N.K. Ratha, J.H. Connel, R. Bolle, Enhancing security and privacy in biometrics-based authentication systems. IBM Syst. J. 40(3), 614–634 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    N. Ratha, S. Chikkerur, J. Connell, R. Bolle, Generating cancelable fingerprint templates. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(4), 561–572 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R.M. Bolle, J.H. Connel, N.K. Ratha, Biometrics perils and patches. Pattern Recogn. 35(12), 2727–2738 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Savvides, B. Kumar, P. Khosla, Cancelable biometric filters for face recognition, in International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 3, (2004), pp. 922–925Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Takahashi, S. Hirata, Cancelable biometrics with provable security and its application to fingerprint verification. IEICE Trans. Fundam. Electron. Commun. Comput. Sci. 94-A(1), 233–244 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Hirata, K. Takahashi, Cancelable biometrics with perfect secrecy for correlation-based matching. in Advances in Biometrics, ser. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ed. by M. Tistarelli, M. Nixon, vol. 5558, (Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009), pp. 868–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    W. Xu, Q. He, Y. Li, T. Li, Cancelable voiceprint templates based on knowledge signatures, in International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security, (2008), pp. 412–415Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Camenisch, M. Stadler, Efficient group signature schemes for large groups, in International Cryptology Conference on Advances in Cryptology, (Springer, London, UK, 1997), pp. 410–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Zuo, N. Ratha, J. Connell, Cancelable iris biometric. in International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2008, pp. 1–4,Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    T. Boult, Robust distance measures for face-recognition supporting revocable biometric tokens. in International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 2006, pp. 560–566Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. Boult, W. Scheirer, R. Woodworth, Revocable fingerprint biotokens: accuracy and security analysis. in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2007, pp. 1–8Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.M. Ashish, G.R. Sinha, Biometric template protection. J. Biostat. Biometric App. 1(2), 202 (2016)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Unique Identification Authority of India. Multipurpose National Identity CardGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Y. Sutcua, Q. Lib, M. Memon, How to Protect Biometric Templates, pp. 1–11Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    T. Kanade, A. Jain, N.K. Ratha, AVBPA 2005, LNCS (Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2005), pp. 523–532Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    E.S. Bigun, J. Bigun, B. Duc, S. Fischer, Expert conciliation for multi modal person authentication systems by bayesian statistics. in Proceedings of AVBPA, Springer, LNCS-1206, 1997, pp. 291–300Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. Kittler, M. Hatef, R. Duin, J. Matas, On combining classifiers. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 20, 226–239 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A.K. Jain, A. Ross, S. Prabhakar, An introduction to biometric recognition. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 14, 4–20 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. Plamondon, G. Lorette, Automatic signature verification and writer identification – the state of the art. Pattern Recogn. 22, 107–131 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Lumini, L. Nanni, An improved BioHashing for human authentication. Pattern Recogn. 40, 1057–1065 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A.T.B. Jin, D.N.C. Ling, A. Goh, Biohashing: Two factor authentication featuring fingerprint data and tokenised random number. Pattern Recogn. 37(11), 2245–2255 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A.T.B. Jin, D.N.C. Ling, Cancelable biometrics featuring with to kenised random number. Pattern Recogn. Lett. 26(10), 1454–1460 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    A.T.B. Jin, D.N.C. Ling, A. Goh, Personalised cryptographic key generation based on face hashing. Comput. Secur. J. 23(7), 606–614 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    T. Connie, A. Teoh, M. Goh, D. Ngo, Palm hashing: A novel approach for dual factor authentication. Pattern Anal. Appl. 7(3), 255–268 (2004)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Y.H. Pang, A.T.B. Jin, D.N.C. Ling, Cancelable palmprint authentication system. Int. J. Signal Process. 1(2), 98–104 (2005)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D. Maio, L. Nanni, MultiHashing, human authentication featuring biometrics data and to kenised random number: a case study FVC2004. Neurocomputing, 2006, to appearGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    I. Nakanishi et al., DWT Domain On-Line Signature Verification, 2011, pp. 184–196Google Scholar
  51. 51.
  52. 52.
    J.A. Du Preez, B. Herbst, J. Coetzer, Offline signature verification using the Discrete Radon Transform and a Hidden Markov Model. EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Processing 4, 559–571 (2004)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    M.C. Fairhurst, Signature verification revised: Promoting practical exploitation of biometric technology. Electron. Commun. Eng. J. 9(6), 273–280 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    T.G. Zimmerman et al., Retail applications of signature verification. Biometric ReportGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    J.B. Ciulla, Ethics effectiveness: The nature of good leadership, in The Nature of Leadership, 2nd edn., (SAGE, Los Angeles, CA, 2012), pp. 508–540Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    U. Pal et al., Signature-based biometric authentication. in Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, 2014, pp. 285–314Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sudeep Tanwar
    • 1
  • Mohammad S. Obaidat
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 2
  • Sudhanshu Tyagi
    • 6
  • Neeraj Kumar
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Institute of TechnologyNirma UniversityAhmedabadIndia
  2. 2.Fordham UniversityNew York CityUSA
  3. 3.ECE DepartmentNazarbayev UniversityAstanaKazakhstan
  4. 4.King Abdullah II School of Information Technology (KASIT), University of JordanAmmanJordan
  5. 5.University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB)BeijingChina
  6. 6.Department of Electronics & Communication EngineeringThapar Institute of Engineering and Technology Deemed to be UniversityPatialaIndia
  7. 7.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringThapar Institute of Engineering and Technology Deemed to be UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations