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Nanotechnology Based Delivery of Nutraceuticals

  • Dhanashree Hemant Surve
  • Atish Tulsiram Paul
  • Anil B. JindalEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 21)

Abstract

With the growing worldwide population, there is increase in prevalence of various diseases like cancer (0.338%), hyperlipidemia (39%), hypertension (44.5%), infectious disease (17 million/ annum), diabetes (18.4%), obesity (25.9%) and osteoporosis (200 million/ annum). Nutraceutical seek their application in prophylaxis and cure of these diseases for instance, coenzyme Q-10, polyphenols, isoflavone, flavones, carotenoid, isocyanidine for treatment of cancer and other life threatening diseases, elements like zinc as prophylactic treatment to maintain metabolism, calcium and magnesium to maintain bone health, Selenium as an anti-oxidant, vitamin D for osteoporosis, vitamin E & C as anti-oxidant for prevention of cancer and vitamin B-complex for proper functioning of nervous system. However, nutraceuticals have certain limitations including poor solubility, absorption and bioavailability, chemical instability and higher first pass metabolism which can be overcome by nano-delivery of nutraceutical.

Various formulation technologies like submicron emulsion, lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles and nanocomposites are currently under thorough research in order to eliminate the above said limitations of nutraceuticals. Submicron emulsion enhances solubility, half-life, bioavailability of bioactives along with reduced gastric irritation. Self-nanoemulsifying or self-microemulsifying drug delivery system has a property to reduce poor palatability, hydrolysis of bioactive and large amount of water and lymphatic uptake of bioactive causing increased bioavailability. Lipid nanoparticles due to their smaller size and lipophilicity could provide advantages of enhanced permeation of bioactives through blood brain barrier and improved bioavailability. Liposomal delivery system is useful to prevent the sensitive bioactives from oxidation, light and moisture. It can serve as unique system to deliver both hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive. Highly potent anti-cancer bioactive possess reduced bioavailability and inability to deliver at specific site. Dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticles can be utilized for targeting such bioactive and sustained release. Polymeric micelles are stable compared to submicron emulsion and are useful for triggered release of bioactive and protection of bioactive from enzymatic degradation. Polymeric nanoparticles derived from natural source like zein, β-lactoglobulin, β-casein and nanodiamond can be used to deliver bioactives in controlled manner, protection from harsh acidic environment and reduced toxicity.

Keywords

Bioavailability Submicron emulsion Lipid nanoparticles Liposomes Polymeric micelles Polymeric nanoparticles Dendrimer Gold nanoparticles Mesoporous silica Nanodiamond Nanocomposite 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

CMC

Critical micelle concentration

CO Q-10

Coenzyme Q-10

EGFR

Endothelial growth factor receptor

GIT

Gastrointestinal tract

GMS

Glyceryl monostearate

HA

Hyaluronic acid

HAuCl4

Gold hydrogen chloride

LNCaP

Human prostate cancer cell lines

LNP

Lipid nanoparticles

NLC

Nanostructured lipid carrier

NLC-H1299

Non-small cell lung cancer

o/w

Oil in water

PDI

Polydispersity index

PSMA

Prostate specific monoclonal antibody

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

SEDDS

Self-emulsifying drug delivery system

SMEDDS

Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system

SNEDDS

Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system

s-SNEDDS

Solid-SNEDDS

SiRNA

Small interfering RNA

TAMRA-TAT

5-(and 6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine labelled HIV transactivator protein TAT

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhanashree Hemant Surve
    • 1
  • Atish Tulsiram Paul
    • 1
  • Anil B. Jindal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PharmacyBirla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani, Pilani CampusJhunjhunuIndia

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