Procedures for Emergency Situations

  • Carlos MoreiraEmail author
  • Clara Gouveia


The development of the smart grid concept implies major changes in the operation and planning of distribution systems, particularly in Low Voltage (LV) networks. The majority of small-scale Distributed Energy Resources (DER)—microgeneration units, energy storage devices, and flexible loads—are connected to LV networks, requiring local control solutions to mitigate technical problems resulting from its integration in the system. Simultaneously, LV connected DER can be aggregated in small cells in order to globally provide new functionalities to system operators.

Within this view, the Microgrid (MG) concept has been pointed out as a solution to extend and decentralize the distribution network monitoring and control capability. An MG is a highly flexible, active, and controllable LV cell, incorporating microgeneration units based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) or low carbon technologies for small-scale combined heat and power applications, energy storage devices, and loads. The coordination of MG local resources, achieved through an appropriated network of controllers and communication system, endows the LV system with sufficient autonomy to operate interconnected to the upstream network or autonomously—emergency operation. In this case, the potentialities of DER can be truly realized if the islanded operation is allowed and bottom-up black start functionalities are implemented.

To achieve this operational capability, this chapter presents the control procedures to be used in such a system to deal with the islanded operation and to exploit the local generation resources as a way to help in power system restoration in case of an emergency situation. A sequence of actions for a black start procedure is identified, and it is expected to be an advantage for power system operation regarding reliability as a result from the presence of a huge amount of dispersed generation.


Primary control Microgrids Secondary control Service restoration 



This work was financed by the ERDF—European Regional Development Fund through the Operational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalization—COMPETE 2020 Programme and by National Funds through FCT—Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) within project “ERANETLAC/0005/2014.”


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.FEUP—Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.INESC TEC—INESC Technology and SciencePortoPortugal

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