Utilisation of Religious/Traditional Leadership
The case study chapters of this volume examine four behavioural patterns of local peacebuilders as stated above. They examine how the four types of ownership promotion have been employed in the two areas, focusing specifically on the strategies local actors utilize to develop their unique models of peacebuilding, the distinguishing features of each of these, and their limitations as models of authentically local peacebuilding. This chapter examines a number of peacebuilding programmes developed by religious or traditional leaders in the local communities. Compared to other types of peacebuilders, religious or traditional leaders have more social capital for mobilising peacebuilding movements and their programmes frequently require less financial resources to maintain. Thus, the peacebuilding in this category is less reliant on external funding and more likely to demonstrate local actors’ unique perspectives and cultural contexts from the early stages of their development. At the same time, these leaders’ key interests and vision for peace are in many cases significantly different from the perspectives of other community residents, especially youth. Hence, their objectives for peacebuilding programmes may not be supported by wider communities. Based on this, Chapter 6 discusses the identity of local peacebuilders who work for the benefits of local communities but do maintain their own distinct interests and views.
KeywordsTraditional peacebuilding Religious peacebuilding Authentic local Complex local identities
- Avruch, Kevin, and Roberto Jose. 2007. Peace Zones in the Philippines. In Zones of Peace, ed. Landon Hancock and Christopher Mitchell, 51–70. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
- Bouta, Tsjeard, Ayse Kadayfci-Orellana, and Mohammed Abu-Nimer. 2005. Faith-Based Peacebuilding: Mapping and Analysis of Christian, Muslim and Multi-Faith Actors. The Hague: Clingendael Institute of International Relations. Available at http://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/20051100_cru_paper_faith-based%20peace-building.pdf. Accessed 12 Mar 2016.
- Caṭṭopādhyāẏa, Pārtha, and Partha Chatterjee. 1986. Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
- Chandler, David. 1998. Cambodia’s Historical Legacy. Accord, 5. Available at http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/cambodia/historical-legacy.php. Accessed 11 Apr 2017.
- Coronel-Ferrer, Miriam. 2002. Philippines National Unification Commission: National Consultation and the ‘Six Paths to Peace’. In Owning the Process: Public Participation in Peacemaking, Accord 13, ed. Catherine Barnes. London: Conciliation Resources. Available at www.c-r.org/accord/peace/accord13/phi.htm. Accessed 18 June 2018.
- Daravuth, Ly. 2003. Notes on Pchum Ben. Available at http://www.brandeis.edu/ethics/peacebuildingarts/pdfs/peacebuildingarts/ly%20notes_on_pchum_ben-2.pdf. Accessed 5 Mar 2016.
- George Mason University. 2017. Overview of Peace Zones in the Philppines. School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University. Available at http://activity.scar.gmu.edu/zones-of-peace/-overview-peace-zones-philippines. Accessed 17 Jan 2018.
- Gopin, Marc. 2000. Between Eden and Armageddon: The Future of World Religions, Violence, and Peacemaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Hansen, Anne. 2004. Khmer Identity and Theravāda Buddhism. In History, Buddhism, and New Religious Movements in Cambodia, ed. John Marston and Elizabeth Guthrie. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
- Kadayifci-Orellana, S. Ayse. 2008. Chapter 14: Ethno-religious Conflicts: Exploring the Role of Religion in Conflict Resolution. In The Sage Handbook on Conflict Resolution, ed. Jacob Bercovitch, Victor Kremeremenyuk, and I. William Zartman, 264–284. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, and Washington, DC: Sage.Google Scholar
- Kent, Alexandra. 2003. Recovery of the Collective Spirit: The Role of the Revival of Buddhism in Cambodia. Working Paper No. 8, Department of Social Anthropology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg.Google Scholar
- Layson, Robert. 2003. Space for Peace: A Nalapaan Experience in Grassroots Peace-Building. A paper presented at the conference: Looking at Conflict in the Eye for Local Resource Partners of the Philippine-Canada Local Developement Support Program, Davao City, Philippines.Google Scholar
- Lee, SungYong, and Wookbeom Park. 2015. Nurturing Local Voice: The UNDP’s Local Empowerment Programmes in Cambodia. In Local Ownership in International Peacebuilding: Key Theoretical and Practical Issues, ed. SungYong Lee and Alpaslan Özerdem, 135–155. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lee, SungYong, and WookBeom Park. 2018. The Dual Track of Democracy Promotion in Post-war Peacebuilding in Cambodia: The Gap Between Institutional Development and Civil Society Mobilisation. Peacebuilding. Advanced Publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/21647259.2018.1498671.
- Lemay-Hébert, Nicolas. 2011. The Potential and Limits of the Local Ownership Paradigm for Future Peace Missions. A Paper Submitted for the Conference – Perspectives on Conflict and Security, July 11–12.Google Scholar
- LICADHO. 2014. Human Rights in 2013: The Year in Review. Available at http://www.licadho-cambodia.org/reports/files/194LICADHOReportHumanRightsReview2013English.pdf. Accessed 18 June 2018.
- Malena, Carmen, and Kristina Chhim. 2009. Linking Citizens and the State: An Assessment of Civil Society Contributions to Good Governance in Cambodia. New York: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Marston, John, and Elizabeth Guthrie (eds.). 2004. History, Buddhism, and New Religious Movements in Cambodia. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
- Neumann, Hannah, and Martin Emmer. 2012. Peace Communication: Building a Local Culture of Peace Through Communication. In Forming a Culture of Peace: Reframing Narratives of Intergroup Relations, Equity, and Justice, ed. Karina V. Korostelina, 227–254. New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Öjendal, Joakim, and Mona Lilja (eds.). 2009. Beyond Democracy in Cambodia: Political Reconstruction in a Post-conflict Society. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.Google Scholar
- Pouligny, Béatrice. 2009. Local Ownership. In Post-conflict Peacebuilding: A Lexicon, ed. Vincent Chetail. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Radio Free Asia (RFA). 2013. In Largest Protest Since Polls, Cambodians Demand Re-Election. Available at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/cambodia/demand-12222013144758.html. Accessed June 2016.
- Reich, Hannah. 2006. ‘Local Ownership’ in Conflict Transformation Projects: Partnership, Participation or Patronage? Occasional Paper No. 27, Berlin, Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management.Google Scholar
- Rood, Steven. 2005. Forging Sustainable Peace in Mindanao: The Role of Civil Society. Policy Studies 17, Washington, DC: East-West Center.Google Scholar
- Santos, Soliman. 2005. Peace Zones in the Philippines: Concept, Policy, and Instruments. Quezon City: Gaston Z. Ortigas Peace Institute and The Asia Foundation.Google Scholar
- Smith, Corinne. 2015. Brokering Peace: The Conflict Through the Eyes of Father Bert. Available at sites.miis.edu/reflections/files/2013/08/Reflection-2015-Fr.-Bert.pdf. Accessed 20 Jan 2018.
- Sreang, Heng. 2008. The Scope and Limitations of Political Participation by Buddhist Monks. In People of Virtue: Reconfiguring Religion, Power and Moral Order in Cambodia Today, ed. Alexandra Kent and David Chandler. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.Google Scholar
- Swearer, Donald. 2010. The Buddhist World of Southeast Asia, 2nd ed. New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
- Tambiah, Stanley. 1996. Leveling Crowds: Ethnonationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- USAID. 2009. Religion, Conflict and Peacebuilding: An Introductory Programming Guide. Washington, DC: USAID.Google Scholar
- William, Rocklyn. 2000. Africa and the Challenge of Security Sector Reform. In Building Stability in Africa: Challenges for the New Millennium, ed. Jakkie Cilliers and Annika Hilding-Norberg. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar