Peacebuilding and Local Peacebuilders in Cambodia and Mindanao
This chapter offers readers background information about the two case studies from a comparative perspective. All social developments are contextual and so is local peacebuilding. The peacebuilding models promoted by local actors are subject to the social, cultural and structural conditions of the society and reflect the local actors’ views and interests constructed within such contexts. The local models of peacebuilding in Mindanao and Cambodia, in this sense, present significant discrepancies in terms of the identity of local peacebuilders, the organisational structure of these agencies, types of programmes, strategies for ownership enhancement, and resources to be mobilised and utilised for operation. The long history of Khmer as a single political and cultural entity, the total civil war that has little relevance to local populations’ interests, and the externally-led peacebuilding in the aftermath of the civil war formed a more homogenous group of local peacebuilders in Cambodia. In Mindanao, in contrast, the coexistence of three cultural and ethnic groups (Christian, Muslim, and indigenous tribes), a complex series of conflicts that reflect multiple-layers of tensions, and multiple trends of peacebuilding supported by varied actors who have distinct historical, ideological and structural backgrounds, developed a few distinct groups of local peacebuilders who frequently have contradictory views and interests.
KeywordsCambodia Mindanao Local peacebuilder Local-external interaction
- Arillo, Cecilio T. 2015. The Mindanao Problem: History, Geography and Democraphy. Business Mirror, February 13. Available at https://businessmirror.com.ph/the-mindanao-problem-history-geography-and-demography-part2/. Accessed 16 June 2018.
- Bara, Hannbal. 2015. The History of the Muslim in the Philippines, National Commission for Culture and the Arts, the Government of the Philippines. National Commission for Culture and Arts, the Government of the Philppines. Available at http://ncca.gov.ph/subcommissions/subcommission-on-cultural-communities-and-traditional-arts-sccta/central-cultural-communities/the-history-of-the-muslim-in-the-philippines/. Accessed 19 Mar 2018.
- Bentley, G. Carter. 1995. Mohamad Ali Dimaporo: A Modern Maranao Datu. In An Anarchy of Families: State and Family in the Philippines, ed. Alfred W. McCoy, 243–284. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.Google Scholar
- Brown, Macalister, and Joseph Zasloff. 1998. Cambodia Confounds the Peacemakers, 1979–1998. New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Cagoco-Guiam, Rufa. 1999. A Critical Partnership: Civil Society and the Peace Process. Accord 6: 56–63.Google Scholar
- Chandler, David. 1998. Cambodia’s Historical Legacy. Accord 5. Available at http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/cambodia/historical-legacy.php. Accessed 11 Apr 2017.
- Chandler, David. 2007. A History of Cambodia. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Chaulia, Sreeram. 2007. International Organisations in Mindanao: To Protect or Not? The Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, February 1. Available at https://sites.tufts.edu/jha/archives/21. Accessed 15 Mar 2018.
- Concepciòn, Sylvia, Larry Digal, Rufa Cagoco-Guiam, Romulo de la Rosa, and Mara Stankovitch. 2003. Breaking the Links Between Economics and Conflict in Mindanao. Discussion Paper, London, International Alert. Available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.200.5712&rep=rep1&type=pdf. Accessed 20 Mar 2018.
- Conciliation Resources. 1999. Accord 6. London: Conciliation Resources.Google Scholar
- Conciliation Resources. 2018. History: The National Democratic Front—Philippines Conflict. Available at http://www.c-r.org/where-we-work/southeast-asia/history-national-democratic-front-philippines-conflict. Accessed 15 Mar 2018.
- Coronel-Ferrer, Miriam. 2002. Philippines National Unification Commission: National Consultation and the ‘Six Paths to Peace.’ In Owning the Process: Public Participation in Peacemaking, Accord, vol. 13, ed. Catherine Barnes. London: Conciliation Resources. Available at www.c-r.org/accord/peace/accord13/phi.htm. Accessed 18 June 2018.
- Ear, Chariya. 2010. Cambodia’s Rural Communities and Social Capital Formation: Lessons Learned from Tram Kak District, Takeo Province. Master’s Disseration, Tokyo: University of Tokyo.Google Scholar
- Gottesman, Evan. 2004. Cambodia After the Khmer Rouge: Inside the Politics of Nation Building. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Heder, Stephen. 1999. Pol Pot at Bay: People’s War and the Breakdown of the 1991 Paris Agreements. PhD, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.Google Scholar
- Hughes, Caroline. 2001. The Political Economy of Cambodia’s Transition, 1991–2001. London and New York: Routledge Curzon.Google Scholar
- Kiernan, Ben. 1992. Behind the Peace Agreement in Cambodia. Viet Nam Generation Journal & Newsletter 3 (4). Available at http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Texts/Scholarly/Kiernan_Peace_Agreement.html. Accessed 2 June 2017.
- Kiernan, Ben. 2002. The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia Under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–1979. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Kim, Dongyeob. 2017. Philippines Bangsamoro Islam Jeongdang-ui Jangrae: Lanao Del Sur-ui Ompia-dang-I Namgin Gyihun-ul Jungsim-uro (The Future of Islamic Political Parties in Bansamoro, Philippines: Lessons from Ompia Party in Lanao Del Sur). In Dong-nam-a-ui Islam-hua: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam-esuui Jeongchi, Sahoemunhua-ui Dayangsung-gua Galdung (The Islamization in Southeast Asia: Political, Social and Cultural Diversity and Conflicts in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam), ed. Hyungjun Kim and Seokjun Hong, 167–219. Seoul: Nulmin.Google Scholar
- Lee, SungYong, and Wookbeom Park. 2015. Nurturing Local Voice: The UNDP’s Local Empowerment Programmes in Cambodia. In Local Ownership in International Peacebuilding: Key Theoretical and Practical Issues, ed. SungYong Lee and Alpaslan Özerdem, 135–155. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Luco, Fabienne. 2002. Between a Tiger and a Crocodile. Phnom Penh: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- Malena, Carmen, and Kristina Chhim. 2009. Linking Citizens and the State: An Assessment of Civil Society Contributions to Good Governance in Cambodia. New York: World Bank.Google Scholar
- McKirdy, Euan, and Ivan Watson. 2017. Former Abu Sayyaf Fighter Warns Worse to Come in the Philippines. CNN, July 2. Available at https://edition.cnn.com/2017/07/02/asia/former-abu-sayyaf-militant-abu-jihad/index.html. Accessed 15 Mar 2018.
- Neher, Clark. D., and Ross Marlay. 1995. Democracy and Development in Southeast Asia: The Winds of Change. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
- Rodil, B.R. 1994. The Minoritization of the Indigenous Communities of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Manila: Alternative Forum for Research in Mindanao.Google Scholar
- Rood, Steven. 2005. Forging Sustainable Peace in Mindanao: The Role of Civil Society—Policy Studies 17. Washington, DC: East-Weste Center.Google Scholar
- Sihanouk, Norodom. 2005. Shadow Over Angkor, 254–255. Phnom Penh: Monument Books, Osborne, 1994.Google Scholar
- Sivhouch, Ou, and Kim Sedara. 2013. 20 Years’ Strengthening Civil Society: Time for Reflection. Phnom Penh: CDRI.Google Scholar
- Slocomb, Margaret. 2004. The People’s Republic of Kampuchea: The Revolution After Pol Pot. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
- Tiu, Marcario. 2013. Davao: Reconstructing History Text Memory. Manila: Ateneo de Davao University.Google Scholar
- Torres III, Wilfredo Magno (eds.). 2007. Rido: Clan Feuding and Conflict Management in Mindanao. Manila: Ateneo de Manila Press.Google Scholar