Legal and Political Analysis of Antipersonnel Landmines and Cluster Munitions Regimes
- 197 Downloads
This chapter tackles two humanitarian disarmament regimes and their related prohibition politics: the global prohibition regime banning antipersonnel landmines and the global prohibition regime that bans cluster munitions. It opens with a legally oriented analysis charting evolution from what could be considered a relationship between general regulatory qualities of international humanitarian law and lex specialis regulating “special aspects” of this general corpus, namely the areas of APLs and CMs (in CCW Protocol V as a part of ERW) towards more robust prohibition regimes established through the APL and CM Conventions. Subsequently, the universality and robustness of those regimes is put under microscope, including norm observance by those outside of the regimes. A set of similarities in typifications of security and legal reasoning is displayed, especially the emergence of human rights as an ethical force and its convergence with humanitarian law as displayed through a still widening scope of victim assistance.
KeywordsProhibition regimes Humanitarianism Disarmament Landmines Cluster munitions NGOs Legal analysis
- Borrie, J. (2009). Unacceptable Harm: A History of How the Treaty to Ban Cluster Munitions Was Won. New York and Geneva: United Nations Publications.Google Scholar
- CCW Protocol. (1980). Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices (Protocol II), 1342 UNTS 168, adopted 10 October 1980 and entered into force 2 December 1983.Google Scholar
- CCW Protocol. (2003). Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War (Protocol V), adopted 28 November 2003, UN Doc. CCW/MSP/2003/2, entered into force 12 November 2006.Google Scholar
- Cluster Munition Coalition. (2016). Global Ban. http://www.stopclustermunitions.org/en-gb/the-treaty/global-ban.aspx. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Convention. (1980). Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (CCW), adopted 10 October 1980, 1342 UNTS 137, entered into force 2 December 1983.Google Scholar
- Convention. (1997). Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (APL Convention), adopted 18 September 1997, 2056 UNTS 211, entered into force 1 March 1999.Google Scholar
- Convention. (2007). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, adopted 13 December 2006, G.A. Res. A/61/106, U.N. GAOR, 61st Sess., art. 1, U.N. Doc. A/RES/61/106 (2007) entered into force 3 May 2008.Google Scholar
- Convention. (2008). Convention on Cluster Munitions, adopted 30 May 2008, Diplomatic Conference for the Adoption of a Convention on Cluster Munitions, CCM/77, entered into force 1 August 2010.Google Scholar
- Corsi, J. (2009). Towards Peace Through Legal Innovation: The Process and Promise of the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 22(1), 145–157.Google Scholar
- DFAIT, IDA Division. (1996). Canadian Action Plan to Reduce the Global Use of Land Mines. Internal Memo, Ottawa: DFAIT.Google Scholar
- Garcia, D. (2011). Disarmament Diplomacy and Human Security: Regimes, Norms and Moral Progress in International Relation. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Gillespie, A. (2011). A History of the Laws of War: Volume 2: The Customs and Laws of War with Regards to Civilians in Times of Conflict. Oxford: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
- Goldblat, J. (2002). Arms Control: The New Guide to Negotiations and Agreements. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Hudson, J. (2016, May 27). Exclusive: White House Blocks Transfer of Cluster Bombs to Saudi Arabia. Foreign Policy. http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/05/27/exclusive-white-house-blocks-transfer-of-cluster-bombs-to-saudi-arabia/. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Human Rights Watch. (2014, October 3). United States Landmine Policy: Questions and Answers. https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/10/03/united-states-landmine-policy-questions-and-answers. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- ICBL. (2012). Timeline of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. http://www.icbl.org/media/342067/icb009_chronology_a5_v4-pages.pdf. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- ICBL. (2014, April 8). Allegation of Russian Use of Landmines in Ukraine: ICBL Update. http://www.icbl.org/en-gb/news-and-events/news/2014/reports-of-russian-landmine-use-in-crimea-requires.aspx. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- ICBL. (2016a). Treaty Status. http://www.icbl.org/en-gb/the-treaty/treaty-status.aspx. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- ICBL. (2016b, March 1). The Mine Ban Treaty Turns 17. http://www.icbl.org/en-gb/news-and-events/news/2016/the-mine-ban-treaty-turns-17.aspx. Accessed 13 June 2016.
- ICRC. (2007, August 15). Overview of the Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-personnel Mines. https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/legal-fact-sheet/landmines-factsheet-150807.htm. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- ICRC. (2016a). Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War (Protocol V to the 1980 CCW Convention). https://www.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/Treaty.xsp?documentId=22EFA0C23F4AAC69C1256E280052A81F&action=openDocument. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- ICRC. (2016b). Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War (Protocol V to the 1980 CCW Convention). https://www.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/States.xsp?xp_viewStates=XPages_NORMStatesParties&xp_treatySelected=610. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Kimball, D. (2012, November 4). Cluster Munitions at a Glance. Arms Control Association. https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/clusterataglance. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Kochin, I., & Jenzen-Jones, N. R. (2015, October 1). Russian PMN-4 Anti-personnel Landmines in Syria. Armament Research Services. http://armamentresearch.com/russian-pmn-4-anti-personnel-landmines-in-syria/. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor. (2015). De Facto Monitoring Regime of the Mine Ban Treaty and Convention on Cluster Munitions. http://www.the-monitor.org/en-gb/home.aspx. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Maputo Action Plan. (2014). http://www.maputoreviewconference.org/fileadmin/APMBC-RC3/3RC-Maputo-action-plan-adopted-27Jun2014.pdf.
- Maresca, L., & Maslen, S. (Eds.). (2009). The Banning of Anti-personnel Landmines: The Legal Contribution of the International Committee of the Red Cross, 1955–1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Mathews, R. J. (2001). The 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons: A Useful Framework Despite Earlier Disappointments. International Review of the Red Cross, 83(844), 991–1012.Google Scholar
- Nairobi Action Plan. (2004). http://www.nairobisummit.org/fileadmin/APMBC-RC1/documents/final_report/RC_Final_Report_en.pdf.
- Nystuen, G., & Casey-Maslen, S. (Eds.). (2010). The Convention on Cluster Munitions: A Commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Oslo Declaration. (2007, February 23). Final Declaration, Oslo Conference on Cluster Munitions. Oslo: Norwegian Government. https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/ud/vedlegg/oslo-declaration-final-23-february-2007.pdf. Accessed June 13, 2016.
- Rutherford, K. R. (2011). Disarming States: The International Movement to Ban Landmines. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Short, N. (1999). The Role of NGOs in the Ottawa Process to Ban Landmines. International Negotiations, 4(3), 481–500.Google Scholar
- UN Statement. (2006, November 7). Secretary-General’s Message to the Third Review Conference of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons [Delivered by Sergei Ordzhonikidze, Director-General, UN Office at Geneva]. http://www.un.org/sg/statements/?nid=2289.
- Williams, J. (2013). My Name Is Jody Williams: A Vermont Girl’s Winding Path to the Nobel Peace Prize. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Wisotzki, S. (2013). Humanitarian Arms Control: The Anti-personnel Mine Ban Treaty, the Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons, and the Convention on Cluster Munitions. In H. Müller & C. Wunderlich (Eds.), Norm Dynamics in Multilateral Arms Control: Interests, Conflicts, and Justice (pp. 82–108). Athens and London: The University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
- Wurst, J. (1997, June 1). Closing in on a Landmine Ban: The Ottawa Process and U.S. Interests. Arms Control Association. https://www.armscontrol.org/act/1997_06-07/wurst. Accessed June 13, 2016.