Suitability of Event-Based Prompts in Experience Sampling Studies Focusing on Location Changes
Among others, location changes and activity level are indicators for state changes of patients suffering from affective disorders such as Bipolar disorder, Borderline personality disorder or depression. It is a common means to assess this information via self-report questionnaires. Usually, these are sent out either randomly throughout the day or at fixed points in time. However, this might lead to missing records of location changes. We propose to rely on event-triggers: send out self-report prompts when a location change is automatically detected. We enhanced the ESMAC application by a location change detection event. Then, we created three different study configurations for each trigger type: random, time-based, and event-based. In a three-week within-subject study we let subjects experience each trigger type in randomized order. We found statistically significant differences in favor of the event-triggers in terms of number of prompts, response rate, prompts after detected location changes, and prompts after detected activity changes. We conclude that event-triggers based on a location change detection shall be used as trigger type for experience sampling studies focussing on location or activity changes.
KeywordsExperience sampling method ESMAC Location changes Mobile sensing User experience
- 2.Trull, T.J., Ebner-Priemer, U.W.: Using experience sampling methods/ecological momentary assessment (ESM/EMA) in clinical assessment and clinical research: introduction to the special section (2009)Google Scholar
- 3.Davidson, G.C., Neale, J.M.: Abnormal Psychology. Wiley Publishing Co., New York (1996)Google Scholar
- 7.Bachmann, A., et al.: ESMAC: a web-based configurator for context-aware experience sampling apps in ambulatory assessment. In: Proceedings of the 5th EAI International Conference on Wireless Mobile Communication and Healthcare, pp. 15–18. ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering) (2015)Google Scholar
- 8.Exler, A., Braith, M., Schankin, A., Beigl, M.: Preliminary investigations about interruptibility of smartphone users at specific place types. In: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing: Adjunct, pp. 1590–1595. ACM (2016)Google Scholar